Ernest Orison Wood

Ernest Orison “EO” Wood
b- June 15, 1886, Ladners Landing, BC. Canada
d- Sept. 7, 1976 in Kelowna, BC. Canada

married #1- Flossie Grace McVicar, May 1, 1929 in Nelson BC
b- Nov 27, 1893, Tennycape, NS, Canada
d- July 5, 1948, Salmon Arm, BC. Canada
daughter of Daniel William McVicar and Martha Eliza Dawes

married #2- (widow) Jessie Ann Fraser, in 1949,
b- Sept 8, 1911, Portknockie, Banffshire, Scotland
d- Feb 10, 2012, Kelowna, BC. Canada, (over 100 years old!)
Daughter of Angus Fraser and Cameron “Carrie” MacDonald
Jessie married Angus Campbell (1902-1942) First.

Ernest was the son of James Alexander Wood, a Methodist Minister,
b- May 21, 1855, Urbana, Champaign, Ohio, USA
d- Dec 14, 1916, Armstrong, BC, Canada
son of William Wood, and Jane Beattie
Mother- Margaret “Maggie” Jane Sweet,
b- Sept 25, 1864, Selby, Richmond, Lennox & Addington, Canada West
d- Nov 20, 1954, Salmon Arm, BC, Canada
daughter of Orison Davis Sweet and Alice Alida Sexsmith

Siblings of Ernest:

Brother- Clinton Stuart Wood
b- Jan 22, Clinton, BC, Canada
d- Nov 6, 1967, Campbell River, BC, Canada

Sister- Ellen Winnifred “Winnie” Wood
b- June 11, 1889, Vernon, BC, Canada
d- Dec 6, 1959, Salmon Arm, BC, Canada

Brother- James “Ellis” Wood
b- Aug 21, 1891, North Arm, Richmond, BC, Canada
d- Feb 9, 1959, Salmon Arm, BC, Canada

Brother- Douglas Vernon Wood
b- Nov 22, 1893, Vernon, BC, Canada
d- Dec 26, 1970, Salmon Arm, BC, Canada

Brother- William Leslie Wood
b- Dec 30, 1895, Revelstoke, BC, Canada
d- June 11, 1970, Salmon Arm, BC, Canada

Brother- Frederick Holcombe “Fred” Wood
b- June 6, 1897, Revelstoke, BC, Canada
d- June 28, 1980, Salmon Arm, BC, Canada

Sister- Alice Margaret Wood
b- Jan 6, 1903, Salmon Arm, BC, Canada
d- Dec 20, 1980, Salmon Arm, BC, Canada

I had this historical document below, sent to me by Orison Wood, son of E.O. Wood
Disclaimer- This was written before Political Correctness, and in a totally different Time Period.
Please take that in consideration when reading this.

Mr. Woods Personal Journals and Letters, ca 1907-1914.


Monday April 8th Today I left Sydney for Victoria.

Tuesday April 9th I left Victoria for Vancouver, went over to Westminster then headed for Penticton.

Wednesday April 10th I reached Kelowna and took a walk around town with Broda before arriving at Penticton where I met Mr. Latimer.
(see Frank Herbert Latimer's genealogy info below)

Thursday April 11th I had my luggage brought up and bought a tent on credit for $11.00. I set it up and moved in.

Friday April 12th. I worked in the office most of the day and began to board at Van Warts for $5.00 per week.

Saturday April 13th. I did two hours leveling in the afternoon.

Sunday April 14th. I went to the Methodist Church in the morning, Sunday School in the afternoon, and to the Presbyterian Church in the evening.

Monday April 15th I marked grade levels on the stakes all day. I ached all over in the evening and went to bed at 7:00 pm and slept 'til 6:00 am.

Tuesday April 16th I chained and put in station stakes for level grades.

Wednesday April 17th- Saturday April 20th I marked level grades and put in stakes where they were missing and noted the missing plugs.

Sunday April 21st I went to the Presbyterian Church in the morning, Sunday School in the afternoon, joined the bible class, and to the Methodist Church in the evening. The service this evening was very good.

Monday April 22nd I worked in the office all day marking elevations on the plan and made a tracing of the plan.

Tuesday April 23rd I finished tracing plans and came home to my tent and shaved. I went back to the office, worked till 6:00 pm and went to supper. After supper I went down and played football in the meadow. At 8:00 pm, I attended a party at Mrs. Latimer’s

Wednesday April 24th. I worked in the office all day drafting.

Thursday April 25th.` I worked in the office all day drafting. At 8:00 pm I went for a walk over the hills to visit Ede’s home with Misses Ede, Wintermute, and Rowe and Mrs. Ede. Miss. Rowe stopped at Latimer’s to get a cake she had left there. We went into the house for a few minutes and then came home. When we got to the road, we sat down on the flume and ate the cake by the light of the moon. We took Miss Rowe home and then came back. Mrs. Latimer provided coffee and refreshments.

Friday April 26th. I worked in office all morning. . After dinner I went 2 or 3 miles down the road and marked level grades on the stakes.

Saturday April 27th Bob Hilton is not back yet. He should have been back 2 or 3 days ago, so I jotted down my level grades, and taking a blueprint, I struck out for the hills. I marked all the stakes but 6 where the plugs were missing, and got back to the office about 5:00 pm. After supper I did some drawing. Penticton and Summerland played a game of football this afternoon. The result was a tie. 3 – 3.

Sunday April 28th I went to the Methodist Church in the morning, to Sunday School in the afternoon, and to the Presbyterian Church in the evening.

Monday April 29th I did nothing all day except a little studying. Bob Hilton got back last night.

Tuesday April 30th We went down to Dog Lake and took some lines for the flumes

Wednesday May 1st Bob and I rowed up to 3 mile. We left the boat house about 7:00 am and got to 3 mile about 8:00 am. When we got there we set to work and made stakes and plugs and had made about 100 when Mr. Latimer appeared on his horse. We took levels all day and I rowed home in the evening. We got to the boathouse at 6:45 pm.

Thursday May 2nd – Friday May 3rd We worked around town marking out the lot corners.

Saturday May 4th We rowed up to 3 mile again and worked most of the day taking levels

Monday May 6th - Tuesday May 7th We worked on Martin Street fixing pipe all day.

Wednesday May 8th I measured flumes today and Bob stayed home.

Thursday May 9th I rowed up to 3 mile and got the level, then after dinner went out and helped Bob measure flumes.

Friday May 10th. We went up on the bench today and took levels. We got thoroughly wet in the rain.

Saturday May 11th. We took levels all day, and had to cut a line 2 or 3 hundred feet through a willow swamp. In the evening I borrowed $1.00 and went on a bust-up.

Sunday May 12th. I went to church twice and Sunday School once today. Mr. Allen preached in the morning.

Monday May 13th. We measured Flumes all day. We got home before 6:00 pm and got our pay. Mine was $37.86 for 13 ¼ days @ $2.75 per day. Paid Barnes $12.25 and Mrs. Van Wart $20.00 for 4 weeks board ending May 10th.

Tuesday May 14th. We measured flumes all day.

Wednesday May 15th. I stayed home today and made a drawing of Projections I.

Thursday May 16th. We leveled all day around town.

Friday May 17th. We went up to 3 mile and ran levels for the delivery ditch down to 4 mile, then ran the preliminary line back.

Saturday May 18th. We took levels for a ditch tapping 4 Mile Creek, then ran traverse lines. We lost the eyepiece of the telescope this afternoon.

Sunday May 19th. I went to Sunday School in the afternoon. We had no superintendent today. Mr. Robinson, the Baptist Minister, preached at the Methodist Church in the evening.

Monday May 20th. We went up to 3 mile and after strenuous and faithful searching found the lost eyepiece and got home about 5:00 pm. I got my shoes from the cobbler and went to a splendid concert in the evening held under the auspices of the W.C.T.U. contest. At the close of the concert, I went forward and congratulated the 6 young ladies participating, and escorted one of them home.

Tuesday May 21st. We ran traverses line for the flumes at 3 mile.

Wednesday May 22nd We subdivided 4 parcels today.

Thursday May 23rd. We subdivided 4 parcels. I killed a small rattler, Someone stole my coat.

Friday May 24th. I stayed home and made a drawing of Project II.

Saturday May 25th. We went up to 4 mile a ran up a few traverse lines and flume lines. I found my coat which had been removed from where I had left it two days ago.

Sunday May 26th. I went to the Methodist Church in the morning and Sunday School in the afternoon. There were about a dozen in the class. Mr. Clement, the class leader suggested taking the young ladies bible class out for a boat ride and carried out his own suggestion. In the evening the Presbyterian Church held an anniversary service in Steward’s Hall.

Monday May 27th. We went up to East Summerland and located a few posts and moved a number. I killed a rattler.

Tuesday May 28th. We measured flumes, played football and attended an evening of athletic appreciation.

Wednesday May 29th. We measured flumes. I went to lecture by Dr. Gamble on the Sabbath.

Thursday May 30th. I stayed home and studied today.

Friday May 31st. I worked in the office all day doing trigonometry and tracing maps.

Saturday June 1st. I worked in the office all day.

Monday June 3rd. I measured flumes. I went to a farewell social for Mrs. Balderstone in the evening.

Tuesday June 4th. I measured flumes today.

Wednesday June 5th. I measured flumes and killed a rattler. I went up to Ede’s in the evening.

Thursday June 6th. I sent off drawing Plate, Projections II. In the afternoon I went to a picnic. About 14 of us played games, and chewed the rag. Some of the fellows in their exuberance, made asses of themselves. About 6:30 pm, we sat down to supper, consisting of ice-cream, lemonade, cake, sandwiches, oranges, etc. Altogether, we all had a splendid time, getting into town at 9:00 pm. We sat around and sang for awhile then went home. I paid Mrs. Van Wart $20.00 for board.

Friday June 7th. I worked in the office all day.

Saturday June 8th. We took levels in a main ditch to correct any variations in the grade. We went down and played foot ball after supper for exercise.

Sunday June 9th. Mr. Hibbert preached his opening sermon this morning. I persuaded a couple of more young men to come to our bible class. Adams, Shaw and Rowe were not present, being engaged in pursuing the two Miss Thompsons and Miss Wilson. I went to the Presbyterian Church in the evening.

Monday June 10th. It rained most of the day, so I stayed home and made out a drawing of Canio Sections in lead pencil. In the evening I went to a social in Staward’s Hall given by the Presbyterian Ladies Aid. There was a good attendance. I refused steadfastly and with a zealous persistence worthy of a better cause to attempt to entertain any young lady. My number corresponded with that of Mrs. Hood, but as she was feeding pretty well and seemed contented, I sheared off. I got an invite to a party at Rowe’s on Wednesday the 12th of June.

Tuesday June 11th. I went down the road and marked the grades on a piece of flume line. I did not go out after dinner on account of the rain. We have nearly completed Canio Section.

Wednesday June 12th. We went up to 3 mile and measured flumes. In the evening, I went to a party at Buttinsky Rowe's Club. Afterwards we organized at Mae Blatelfords .

Thursday June 13th. We went up to 4 mile, marked grades and measured flumes. In the evening I went to a social in the Methodist church in honour of Mr. Hibbert. The Buttinsky Club acquitted itself nobly. The old standbys found themselves imperceptibly butted out.

Friday June 14th. We measured flumes all day. I went to a party at Thompson’s. The Buttinsky Club was again in evidence and held a very successful meeting adjourning at 1:30 am.

Saturday June 15th. I worked around the office all day. Bob did not turn up. I measured a flume, and traced plan, etc.

Sunday June 16th. I went to church twice. There was a big crowd in the Methodist Church in the evening. I wrote two letters.

Monday June 17th. We worked all day. I got the transit, in the morning. In the afternoon I measured lumber and wrote two more letters.

Tuesday June 18th. I finished Conio Sections. I got my hair cut, and went down to play foot ball in the evening, but as no ball turned up, there was no game. I wrote another letter. There is to be a moonlight party on the lake tomorrow night.

Wednesday June 19th. I got news that we would start tomorrow morning so I hustled around and got provisions. After supper I went for a row on the lake with the rest of the people. The lake was rather rough at first, but quite calm afterwards. We had a good time getting home about 10:30 pm.

Thursday June 20th I got up good and early, packed my tent, blankets, and necessities. I took my trunk over to Latimer’s and went to breakfast. Fred Williamson packed our stuff up. Bob didn’t turn up, so Mr. Latimer sent word that he needn’t come up, and we took Gerald instead. I went on foot and they on horseback. They caught up with me about 8 miles out. We got to the camp about 3:00 pm and we pitched our tents.

Friday June 21st We went out in the morning and ran some levels through the brush. Two axemen went in with us. We came back to camp for dinner. After dinner we went out again. About 3:00 pm, a severe hailstorm overtook us and we suspended our operation pro-tem. Then it began to rain and rained for half an hour and then quit. At this point, we struck out for home. The bushes were so wet that we might almost as well have waded over our knees in water, and when we got home, we were soaking wet and had to go to work and build up blazing fires, and take off our clothes and dry them by the fire. I burnt one of my shoes.

Saturday June 22nd It rained all night and in the forenoon until about 10:30 am. After dinner we started out and waded through the swamp all afternoon in water over our boot tops. Mr. Latimer killed a grouse with his axe while we were coming home.

Sunday June 23rd. I got up in good time and got my breakfast. I rustled around and got in some firewood. I made a stand for a candle, a table and a bedstead. I read and went for a walk.

Monday June 24th. I started out again this morning and waded through the swamp all day. The mosquitoes were something fierce. John cut his foot badly with an axe.

Tuesday June 25th. We spent most of the day looking for the CPR survey line. We climbed about, among the mountain tops until 2:00 pm when we found it. We commenced to run our tying on line from the 18 mile point.

Wednesday June 26th. We continued our line, crossed the creek and carried it partly up the side hill. My burnt shoe went all to pieces; so I went down to camp for another pair.

Thursday June 27th. We carried our line up over the hill top on which was the reservoir site and ran the northern line of the 600 acres. Stuart, who was chopping in John’s place also cut his foot badly.

Friday June 28th. It threatened rain all day so we stayed in camp. Got a letter from Aunt Grace yesterday.

Saturday June 29th. It threatened rain in the morning, so we went out in the afternoon and ran ½ mile or so of line. My burned boot collapsed like the other, one hour away.

Sunday June 30th. Mr. Latimer, Gerald and some of the men went to town. I went over to the camp for dinner.

Monday July 1st.- Tuesday July 2nd I stayed around camp, read and studied. I got in a pile of firewood for myself.

Wednesday July 3rd. I stayed in camp read, studied and got more firewood. The weather was rather stormy. I chopped down the tent tree, as it was cracking. Mr. Latimer brought up another pair of boots for me. He got back in the evening. We put the porridge on to cook and went for a rabbit hunt. We didn’t get any rabbits, but the porridge was burnt beyond any recognition on our return.

Thursday July 4th. We went on the hill and ran ¾ mile of line. It was very stormy in the morning with hail and snow.

Friday July 5th. We finished surveying the ¼ section of land on the hill.

Saturday July 6th. We took levels in the swamp all day. Mr. Latimer was struck on the head by a falling tree and I tried to chop off the index finger of my left hand.

Sunday July 7th. We bought a fresh supply of provisions for the camp yesterday. We remained about camp all day, so I did a little cobbling.

Monday July 8th.– Wednesday July 10th We got through leveling and Mr. Latimer traversed the level line. Then we started running the traverse line around the dam reservoir site.

Thursday July 11 We began another site.

Friday July 12th. We continued the same site.

Saturday July 13th. We finished that site and took levels for the dam.

Sunday July 14th. I packed up our stuff, sold my tent, and bought Mr. Latimer’s. I walked down from camp, 15 miles to town, in 4 ½ hours. Mr. Latimer rode. I killed a large rattler on the way down. I changed my clothes and went to Van Wart’s for dinner. In the afternoon I went over to where the pack train had stopped, got my stuff, put up my tent and moved in.

Monday July 15th There was nothing doing today. I got my check $48.12¢. for 17 ½ days, Which was 2 days short put in on July 9th. I paid Wade $9.95¢, and paid $0.50¢ for chocolate

Tuesday July 16th I worked in the office all day and formed a choir in the evening.

Wednesday July 17th I bought pants for $3.50, a hat for $3.00 and ties for $1.25 My laundry cost $0.25¢. I spent a total of $8.00

Thursday July 18th –Friday July 19th I did nothing all day but study.

Saturday July 20th I studied all day, and went to choir practice in the evening. We had 2 basses, 2 tenors, 2 altos, 2 sopranos 1 flute and 1 clarinet.

Sunday July 21st I went to the Methodist Church in the morning. Our new choir rendered it’s initial anthem. I went to Sunday School in the afternoon, and to the Presbyterian Church in the evening.

Monday July 22nd I worked in the office all day and went downtown in the evening. Immense crowds thronged the streets. I paid $3.00 for a watch.

Tuesday July 23rd I worked in the office in the forenoon. In the afternoon I helped clean up the church lot for the social. Afterwards we went for a swim. In the evening I went to the social. There was quite a large crowd. The cost was $0.50¢.

Wednesday July 24th I worked in the office all day. I got a cheque from Clement for $2.50 and bought a pair of boots for $2.60, charged at Barnes. In the evening, I went to a meeting of the football club regarding a concert on the 8th of August. I witnessed a partial eclipse of the moon.

Thursday July 25th We went to Dog Lake. Mr. Latimer and the Kid rode. I walked. We cut and slashed all day through dead willow and bulrushes. The mosquitoes were mildly interested in us. The weather was very warm We went in for a swim before dinner. We quit about 6:00 pm and got home about 7:00 pm.

Friday July 26th I overslept this morning and didn’t bother about getting any breakfast nor lunch. I got my dinner at Mark’s camp down by the lake. We quit again at 6:00 pm and got into town by 7:00 pm. This quitting at 6:00 pm with 4 miles to go is getting played out.

Saturday July 27th We surveyed all day among the swamps at the mouth of Okanagan River down by Lake Skaha. The steam rising from the swamps, combined with a blazing sun and no breeze, made it seem like we were working in a huge Turkish bath. I got stung on the ear by a wasp. I got into town by 7:00 pm. After supper I hustled downtown and got a weeks provisions, and then went to choir practice. Tonight we had 3 basses, 3 tenors, 3 sopranos and 2 altos. I saw a Miss home. I noticed streamer of light across the sky.

Sunday July 28th I went to the Presbyterian Church in the morning, to Sunday School in the afternoon, and to the Methodist Church in the evening.

Monday July 29th We got our stuff together and Gerald and I rode down with the livery to Lake Skaha and set up the camp. In the afternoon about 2:00 pm, Mr. Latimer appeared and we made some posts and got to work. After work was over we all went for a swim. Then we came back to camp. Mr. Latimer went home and we put up our spring mattresses, made our beds and got supper and then sat around and read.

Tuesday July 30th We surveyed lots all day and went for a swim in evening. We killed mosquitoes after we shut up the tent.

Wednesday July 31st. We surveyed lots in the morning. In the afternoon we made posts and stakes and went for a swim.

Thursday August 1st We went up to the end of the road on the hill and made a dozen or so pickets while Mr. Latimer made a tour of exploration to see where to continue the road. He came back in a couple of hours and took the pickets and set them at the corners of the road. We ran the line for the road all afternoon.

Friday August 2nd We continued the road nearly to 4 mile creek. Mr. Latimer didn’t get back until after 2:00 pm. We caught some squawfish this afternoon.

Saturday August 3rd We put in stakes part of the morning, then finished the main road and partly ran a short branch road. We fished during intervals in the creek and caught 9 fish. We left the camp at 6:45 pm, and got into town at 7:40 pm. We got provisions for $2.40 at Barnes’ and left town at 8:10 pm, arriving back at camp at 9:00 pm.

Sunday August 4th We went to the road camp for dinner and supper.

Monday August 5th We finished the road today, then did half an hour of leveling. We went out and caught some suckers for supper.

Tuesday August 6th We took levels all day. When we got back to camp, Mr. Latimer told us to pack up camp in the morning and go to town. We did our best to use up the rest of the provisions and were successful in using up most of them.

Wednesday August 7th In the morning as we were finishing breakfast after packing our blankets, Mr. Latimer suddenly appeared on his nag and told us that he had discovered 3 or 4 more days work for us. We worked all day running survey lines during which time I managed to embroil myself with a swarm of yellow-jackets. I got a stake and commenced to sharpen it on a log. The first indication of trouble I received was in the shape of a hornet’s sting, which at once aroused my interest in my immediate surroundings, at which point I discovered that I had disturbed a hornets nest. I kept very quiet in the hope that the insects would overlook my presence, but when I had been stung a number of times, and I could feel many more insects making their way into my hair, my fortitude gave way and I moved gracefully away at the rate of about 36 ¼ miles an hour, gently moving my arms in mild protest against the personal attentions of the excited little creatures. I proceeded thus for about ½ mile or so and then stopped and picked hornets out of my hair for 5 minutes or so, taking care to quell their ardent zeal, by vigorous massage between the soul of my boot and the rock. Then I walked back, and after possessing myself of the axe which I had left near the log while I took the stake with me, proceeded to sharpen the stake on another log. I saw a hornet come rushing up out of a hole in the log, my departure was precipitate. In almost 20 seconds the air about the log was yellow. I observed their frantic search with interest.

Thursday August 8th. Mr. Latimer did not get out until after 11:00 am, and when he got to the camp, I had gone fishing. He asked one of the road gang if those were his men out in the boat and receiving an answer in the affirmative he gave a whoop and went on. We caught up with him inside half an hour. We occupied most of the day in getting over a huge rocky hill.

Friday August 9th. We finished triangulating the two inaccessible lines and put in a couple of posts which I had the honour of carving from standing trees. Mr. Shalford came out in the afternoon and told Mr. Latimer that they could not spend any more time down there as other matters were more urgent. We went over to the reserve and got some apples.

Saturday August 10th We got up and packed up the camp and when the rig came, we loaded our stuff and rode into town. In the afternoon I got a pair of pants for $3.25, shirts for $4.75 and cap for $0.85¢ at Barnes. In the evening I went to choir practice. Several new choristers were present. I sent off Conio Sections.

Sunday August 11th. I went to the Presbyterian Church in the morning, to Sunday School in the afternoon. The Sunday School picnic is to be held on Thursday,. The Baptist also held a service in the hall; and the Methodist Church in evening. The Methodist Church was crowded. Miss McKinley. was out to church. Mrs. McKinley sang a solo.

Monday August 12th. There was nothing doing today. I got a cheque for $60:50, and paid Barnes $18:20, Mrs. Van Wart $20:00 up to August 10th., and sent $20:00 home. We saw a drunken freighter try to drive out of town. There was great excitement. His boss drove up with loath and made him quit and they put the horses away.

Tuesday August 13th - Wednesday August 14th Nothing doing. Stayed in camp all day and did some studying. It rained all day. We are nearly finished the transit surveying.

Thursday August 15th I got up at 6:30 am. Mrs. Van Wart was not up when I got down there. I left home at 7:10 am with the level on my shoulder. Mr. Latimer and Gerald followed on horseback. We ran a pipeline for a man on the outskirts of town, then went up to 4 mile and altered the road slightly and ran levels. We took the instruments home. I took the level and got home by 6:00 pm

Friday August 16th We stayed in town and worked on intersections and developments. We are not likely to be going down below for 2 or 3 weeks. Until then, the prospect of work seems very vague. I saw Dr. White this evening.

Saturday August 17th I checked lumber most of the day and then copied field notes. In the evening I went to choir practice.

Sunday August 18th I went to the Methodist Church in the morning. The choir rendered a voluntary. I went to Sunday School in the afternoon and to the Presbyterian Church in the evening.

Monday August 19th I copied field notes in the morning and did some work at Plate in the afternoon.

Tuesday August 20th I worked all day at Plate.

Wednesday August 21st I finished Plate except a little lettering. I went down to post some letters and had to see Miss Rowe and Miss F home. Miss Thompson married to F. Riley. Sounds of a Shivery are floating on the evening breeze.

Thursday August 22nd. I did some cramming on Leveling. In the evening I went to a Social in the church given by the Ladies Aid. Promenades. Mrs. Riley forced me to join by introducing me to her niece. I had to see Miss Rowe and Miss F. home again. I won’t repeat the performance.

Friday August 23rd. I studied up some more leveling. There was a run away down town. Butcher’s rig number one was killed or injured. Billy Taylor got in late last night.

Saturday August 24th. I studied and went to choir practice in evening.

Sunday August 25th. I went to the Presbyterian Church in the morning, to Sunday School in the afternoon and to the Methodist Church in the evening.

Monday August 26th We did half days work on the bench. We have been having a lot of rain lately. It is raining now, at 9:30 pm.

Tuesday August 27th. Mr. Latimer went down to Fairview to meet Carpenter. I studied leveling all day. I wrote a letter to J. W. Murray. I got Plate Conio Sections.

Wednesday August 28th. I finished up Plate and sent it off. I also sent a letter. I got home about 11:00 pm. I bought a lantern, oil and apples at Barnes, for $1.35. I went down town and spent the evening with Billy Taylor and Gordon Harris. I got home about 11:00 pm.

Friday August 30th. I went up to Chris’ in the evening.

Saturday August 31st. I have nearly finished the Leveling exam. I went to choir practice in the evening.

Sunday September 1st. I went to the Methodist Church in the morning, to Sunday School in the afternoon, and to the Presbyterian Church in the evening.

Monday September 2nd. I finished the Leveling exam, and got it off in the mail.

Tuesday September 3rd. We started circular curves. I got a burner and glass from Wade’s and fitted it onto my lantern.
Wednesday September 4th. We worked all day on circular curves. Mr. Latimer says we shall probably go down to Fairview by stage in the morning and stay there for a week or so.

Thursday September 5th. We left for Fairview at 7:00 am. Two passengers were in stage besides ourselves. The front spring broke when we were nearing the Falls. We had to wait at the Falls until it was fixed with a stick and some bailing wire. Two passengers got off here and a widow and her father-in-law got on. We got to Fairview about 2:00 pm and had dinner. We loafed around for the rest of afternoon.

Friday September 6th. I got up at 6:00 am. Fairview is situated on a hillside overlooking vast stretches of land in the valley. Many houses are deserted and falling into ruin. After breakfast a livery rig came to the hotel and took us to the place where we were going to start work, about 8 miles north. We started taking levels every 300 feet on a trial line for a ditch and ran some 8,700 feet during the day and in the evening we got in the rig that had come back for us and got back to the hotel about 8:00 pm and had dinner.

Saturday September 7th. I left the hotel at 7:00 am and drove down to where we had quit the night before. In the morning we had to go over some very rough country, so we only did about 4,000 feet. I left a lunch at the starting place, so, while I went after it, Mr.. Latimer and Gerald made some stakes. In the afternoon we made better time going over 2 miles. About 5:45 pm we reached the level and struck out for the place where we were to meet the rig about 2 miles distance. When we got there, there was no rig in sight, so it appeared to be up to us to find our way home and we started up the road. Just then the rig was seen coming down the road after us. The driver having gone up the road to meet us, and not seeing us, had turned around and come back. We reached the hotel shortly after 7:00 pm.

Sunday September 8th. I had breakfast at 8:00 am, and loafed around all day. I went to the Presbyterian Church in the evening. About 20 people were present. The Hymns were very slow.

Monday September 9th. We got away about 7:30 am and continued the level line to Station 241, then went back to Station 141 and ran a shorter line to Station 241 saving 3,300 feet and continued the line thence to Station 332 where we quit and took the rig for the hotel stopping at the river for a drink which was heartily appreciated as we had been working all afternoon in the sweltering sun without a drink of water.

Tuesday September 10th We continued the line to Station 510 + 50. Mr. Parkinson went down with us and started traversing the line. We had a horrible time among the sand banks. A high wind prevailed all day, and among the sand banks, the dust was a fright. I came upon a scorpion and destroyed it. It was about 1 ½ inches long.

Wednesday September 11th We continued the line to Station 684. It rained all day and snowed on the mountains. We quit work about 5:00 pm and took the rig for home. We ran across old Adams at the ranch-house.

Thursday September 12th We ran a line across the valley from Station 885, then drove 2 or 3 miles south and had lunch, and then traversed the ditch line from Station 549 to Station 656. We quit about 6:30 pm and made for the ranch house where the rig was waiting for us. Got to the hotel about 8:15 pm. I politely allowed Mr. Latimer to go ahead into the hotel, because I saw that the landlord was annoyed at our tardiness. We may not be able to go home until Monday, as Mr. Parkinson is laid up with rheumatism and we shall have to finish traversing the line ourselves.

Friday September 13th We went down to Station 285 and found we had to traverse the sub-ditch line besides what we had expected. It took us all forenoon to do the sub-line and in the afternoon we went from Station 213 to Station 332 and will have to go back in the morning to finish. Then we will get in the rig and head for Penticton.

Saturday September 14th. We collected all our belongings and put them in the rig and drove to where we had left off the previous night. We finished traversing the line about 10:45 am and got in the rig and drove for Penticton. We stopped at the Falls for dinner and got to town about 5:00 pm. Went to Van Wart’s for supper. Later on I went to choir practice. I helped see some of the choir home after practice, and wrote a letter to Kid.

Sunday September 15th. I went to the Methodist Church in the morning, to Sunday School in the afternoon and to the Presbyterian Church in the evening. Mr. Main looked after the lamps in the absence of Mr. Stewart. He burnt out one acetylene lamp, smashed the glass out of a hanging lamp and nearly caused a fire with the other lamp.

Monday September 16th. I went down to the slough with Gerald to get some ducks, but failed to do so. There were lots of mud hens. We got back about 1:30 pm. I got my cheque for $33.00; paid Barnes and Wade, and sent 3 letters.

Tuesday September 17th. We worked at circular curves in the morning, and went fishing for Kikininnies in afternoon. I sent in Price’s name to I.C.S. Paid Mrs. Van Wart $20.00.

Wednesday September 18th. I carried the level up to the bench, and then brought it back again. Mr. Latimer followed with the rod on horse back. We took a few levels for the pipeline and got back to town about 10:30 am. In the afternoon we waded the creek and got ½ dozen Kikininnies. In the evening I went to choir practice for the big concert. The choir included about a dozen Sopranos, 7 Altos, 5 Bases, and 2 Tenors. We practiced “Soldiers Chorus” from Faust.

Thursday September 19th. I studied all day at C. C. In the evening I went to the Peach Social in the Stewart Hall, and had a swell time. There was music, peaches, poems and musical choirs. I had to see a “peach” home after the social ended.
Friday September 20th. I worked at C.C. in main, and in the afternoon went out with Mr. Latimer and surveyed out some lots. In the evening I went on a 559 bust up.

Saturday September 21st. I put in all day around town surveying lots and putting in posts. My pack consisted of a sack of posts, an axe, a pick, 2 pins and the chain. I got my laundry for $1.25. there was no choir practice tonight, as Mrs. Mitchell has gone to the coast.
Sunday September 22nd. I went to the Presbyterian Church in the morning, to Sunday School in the afternoon and to the Methodist Church in the evening. Miss Thompson sang a solo. There are rumors that we may have another medal contest.

Monday September 23rd. We spent the day working at circular curves.

Tuesday September 24th. We nearly finished circular curves and sent off couple of plans to A.N.A. I bought an oil-can for $0.50¢, oil for $0.20¢ and soap for $0.35¢

Wednesday September 25th We finished Circular Curves and sent it off and began Stadia and Plane Table Surveying.
Thursday September 26th We finished Stadia and Plane Table Surveying and sent it off. We began Topographical surveying. I bought pants for $5:00 and socks for $0.80¢ at Barnes’ on charge.

Friday September 27th. We have practically finished the Topographical surveying. I ate my last meal at Van Wart’s, and got my cheque for $25.00 for the month of September.

Saturday September 28th. Paid Barnes $5.80 and Mrs. Van Wart - $7.25 for board; $0.25¢ each for two meals at the restaurant and 25 apples, 15 oranges. We finished Topographical surveying today.

Sunday September 29th. I went to the Methodist Church in the morning, to Sunday School in the afternoon, and to the Presbyterian Church in the evening. Watermelons were provided. We went over to Latimer’s and practiced choruses.

Monday September 30th. We did some work on Hydro and Sent off Topographical Surveys in the afternoon. I got roped into working at the cannery.

Tuesday October 1st I got up at 7:00 am and went down to the cannery. I scalded tomatoes all morning. I went up to B.C. for dinner. I took my boots to the cobbler. After dinner Billy wanted to take a turn at scalding, so I went to work peeling. There is not as much fun in it as I expected. I detest peeling. I think I'll quit. I want to get more time for study. I sent off letters to Acd Sea and Van

Wednesday October 2nd I went down to the cannery at 7:00 am. I set the fires and piled cans until after 8:00 am. When Mr. Ede came in, I handed in my resignation and got cheque for $4.75. I came home and commenced Plotting Angles I. In the evening I took my auto-harp downtown and spent the evening with Gordon Harris and Billy Taylor.

Thursday October 3rd I continued Plotting Angles I. In the evening I went to choir practice. There were about twenty present. I saw Miss Thompson home.

Friday October 4th I finished Plotting Angles I and sent it off.

Saturday October 5th I plotted Angles II in pencil and went to choir practice in the evening. I had to see half the choir home. They were speaking of the dance, Miss Greer and Miss Rowe was very enthusiastic, and they just loved it. Miss Rowe weighs about 180 and is 5’3”. Miss Greer weighs 295 pounds. I can imagine the elephantine grace of their light, fairy movements. I’m going to quit seeing young ladies home. They haven’t any sense. They talk like kids.

Sunday October 6th I went to the Presbyterian church in the morning. Mr. Hibbert preached this morning. I went to Sunday School in the afternoon and to the Methodist church in the evening. The choir rendered a voluntary. I didn’t see any young ladies home, although I had several narrow escapes. I wrote a letter to Aunt Grace, and sent Pryce’s name to I.C.S.

Monday October 7th I have nearly finished Plotting Angles II. Mr. Latimer and Mr. Meade came back from south this afternoon.

Tuesday October 8th I finished Plotting Angles II and did some work on the Hydro survey.

Wednesday October 9th I worked at the Hydro survey, went down to the ranch and got box of apples. I picked them myself and brought them here.

Thursday October 10th I worked on the Hydro survey and sent for a drawing table. I went to choir practice in the evening

Friday October 11th I've nearly finished the Hydro surveying.

Saturday October 12th I wanted to finish the Hydro surveying, but Mrs. Latimer called me and made me help clean up lumber around their new house. Darn women anyway. In the evening I went to choir practice and helped Mr. Hibbert see Miss McKinley and Miss Greer home in order to avoid seeing Miss Rowe home.

Sunday October 13th I went to the Methodist church in the morning. Went down to B.C. for dinner and met Will Palmer and Bob Armstrong. After dinner I went out with them and showed them the land and took them to Creighton and had them on Melor. I went to the Presbyterian church in the evening.

Monday October 14th Mr. Latimer came around and woke me about 9:00 am and we went out and checked out some distances. After dinner, we did some work on the Hydro survey. We got back circular curves and Stadia and Plane Table Surveying.

Tuesday October 15th We went out in the afternoon and laid out a few lots and partly laid out a road on the bench. In the evening we had choir practice.

Wednesday October 16th We went up on the hill and put in some posts and worked until 11:30 am, then carried the transit home while Mr. Latimer rode around. We did some more work on the Hydro survey.

Thursday October 17th We finished Hydrographic surveying and sent it away. In the evening I went to hear a lecture on the “Lord’s Day Act”. Sent off letters to dd and Sa.

Friday October 18th We worked on United States Land Survey.

Saturday October 19th We worked on U.S. Land Surveys in the morning and worked at map of Railroad location in the afternoon. In the evening, I went to choir practice and saw Miss Thompson home, assisted by Roe, although his assistance was not needed.

Sunday October 20th Today is Rally day at Sunday School. There are 97 present. I went up to Ede’s for tea and to the Methodist Church in the evening.

Monday October 21st I went out in morning and did a little work down by the lake. In the afternoon I did some work on the map.

Tuesday October 22nd I went up towards 3 mile and ran pipe lines and ditch and flume lines all day. In the evening, I went to choir practice. Sent letter to A.N.A.

Wednesday October 23rd I did some work on the map. I discarded the first map on account of an accumulation of dust and began new one. I sent off Plotting Angles II

Thursday October 24th I finished plotting the map in pencil, then went downtown and had a bath. In the evening I went to choir practice at Mitchell’s.

Friday October 25th I nearly finished the map of the railroad location.

Saturday October 26th I finished the map and went to choir practice in the evening.

Sunday October 27th I went to the Methodist church in the morning, to Sunday school in the afternoon, and to the Presbyterian church in the evening. We had a Thanksgiving service in the Presbyterian church this evening. I got an invite to a Thanksgiving feed next Sunday. Monday October 28th I finished mapping Part I.

Tuesday October 29th We went out in the morning and laid off some lots. It rained in the afternoon so we couldn’t go out. In the evening I went to choir practice.

Wednesday October 30th We wadded through the swamp all day locating post among the bulrushes and putting in others. Every now and then a person would step into a hole and go in up to the knees. The bulrushes were from five to eight feet high, and we had to smash lines through them. After supper I went down to the Miller’s and played chess. Miller came out second.

Thursday October 31st Adams and I went up to Ede’s for Thanksgiving dinner. After dinner Blachford, Adams and I went out for a stroll and we didn’t manage to get back to the house as darkness came on, and we were obliged to wend our steps townward. Adams was very much disappointed as he wanted to ask one of the Ede girls to go to the concert with him. The concert began at 8:15 pm and there were between two and three hundred people present. The choir led off with “God so Loved the World”, followed by a piano solo. Then Mr. Elliot gave a recitation, followed by a mixed quartet Pro Phundo Basso and a solo from Mrs. Mitchell. After the intermission that followed, the choir rendered another chorus “Hark, Hark My Soul”, followed by recitation by Miss McKinley. Then Mrs. Were gave a piano solo followed by a quartet “My Old Kentucky Home”, and another Recitation by Mr. Elliot. Then the choir finished up with, “The Soldiers Chorus” and “God Save the King”. Everybody had a good time. After the concert was over the choir and their escorts sat down to Thanksgiving dinner given by the Ladies Aid. Afterwards Blachford and I helped Rowe see the Miss Thompsons home and stayed at the gate and chewed the rag while Rowe had to go home with his sister, then Blachford and I walked up to Eckhardt Ave. and stood on the bridge and swapped yarns for a while waiting for Mr. Hibbert and Miss Lanchaster to come along, but they failed to materialize and we dispersed.

Friday November 1st Mr. Latimer came around 7:30 am and woke me up. I got up and went down to the swamp to the place where we had stopped the preceding evening, we worked down there for some hours finishing about 10:30 am, then we came back to the house and I made a couple dozen posts. About 1:30 pm we set out for Dog Lake. Mr. Latimer rode. I got down there about 2:30 pm and we worked from then until 5:00 pm subdividing lots. The English church held a reception to their new minister tonight. The Anglican ladies sat in one group, the Anglican gentlemen in another and outsiders in another. The reception committee there was nonexistent and the minister walked aimlessly around trying to introduce himself. After about an hour of this the chairman who had been fidgeting about rather impatiently cleared his throat and announced they would begin dancing and that those who did not wish to dance could go home.

Saturday November 2nd I got away for Dog Lake in good time. I took some 1½” X 3”s with us for posts. When we arrived there I manufactured some posts while Mr. Latimer staked out the cayuse. Then we worked all day dividing a strip of land along the shore into 50’ X 80’ lots. They will probably sell for about $150.00 apiece. (The average profile for lots was 100’ X 50’). We quit about 5:00 pm and struck out for home. I went to choir practice at Mrs. Mitchell’s. After the practice we went over to the church and decorated it for the Thanksgiving service of the morrow. A Miss left her purse at Mitchell’s so I went back and got it for her and then she went home with Rowe. I wash my hands.

Sunday November 3rd We had a Thanksgiving Service in the church this evening. The choir rendered two anthems and Mrs. Mitchell sang a solo. The church was full in spite of a tempestuous evening.

Monday November 4th We went up to Dog Lake and finished staking out the small lots.

Tuesday November 5th We went up to Dog Lake and started at a place about 5 miles distant and traversed the shore for a while and then had dinner. After lunch I took the instruments over the hill while Mr. Latimer went for his cayuse. (an American Indian Pony) We put in a couple of lot posts and then went up on top of a steep rocky hill and put in a corner post, then came down and as it was getting dark, quit for the day. I got to the tent about 7:30 pm.

Wednesday November 6th I worked with the transit in the morning, and in the afternoon changed part of the ditch line.

Thursday November 7th We worked at the ditch line until noon, and then ran subdivision lines until about 4:00 pm when we finished leveling and began to stake off some lots. It froze last night.

Friday November 8th I woke up about 6:50 am and got up very reluctantly at 6:55 am, and after dressing, had breakfast and struck out for Dog Lake. Mr. Latimer got down about 9:00 am and we spent the forenoon in setting a couple of posts before going home for dinner. After dinner, we went up on the bench and ran a line through Ede’s place.

Saturday November 9th We went up to 3 mile Point and commenced dividing it into 25’ lots. I went to choir practice after supper at Mitchell’s.

Sunday November 10th Mr. Cameron, the Presbyterian minister from Hedley, preached in the Methodist Church in the morning, took the Bible class in the afternoon and preached in the Presbyterian Church in the evening.

Tuesday November 12th We finished dividing 3 mile point, and thereby finished all the work in sight at present.

Wednesday November 13th I got my salary for last month, of $9.75. I went to initial meeting of the choral society. There was about a dozen present. As it is getting too cold to stay in town and study, I spoke to Mr. Latimer about some flumes that should be measured. He agreed with me.
Thursday November 14th Today, I measured the flume on the main ditch all day.

Friday November 15th I continued measuring the flume on the main ditch all day and sent off the map.

Saturday November 16th I continued measuring the flume on the main ditch all day and after finishing it and came home, had supper, a shave and haircut, and went to choir practice. After choir practice, I saw Miss Niel home.

Sunday November 17th I went to Sunday School in the afternoon, and to the Methodist Church in the evening.

Monday November 18th We went up to 4 mile and measured Lateral Y, and did most of Lateral Z. There is a cold wind blowing today. In the evening, I went over to Tupper’s with the autoharp and the minstrels played over some pieces for the set

Tuesday November 19th There is snow on the surrounding hilltops. I stayed home and went to the young people’s C.A. and another practice post.

Wednesday November 20th I stayed home today on account of atmospheric disturbances.

Thursday November 21st I stayed home again on account of atmospheric disturbances. I went to the concert in the evening. The Penticton Amateur Discord Orchestra distinguished themselves and covered themselves in glory in their rendition of Plantation Melodies.

Friday November 22nd I again stayed in camp on account of inclement weather.

Saturday November 23rd I stayed in camp on account of inclement weather again today, but went to choir practice in the evening. Mr. Latimer suddenly became possessed of a desire to receive the flume information as soon as possible, so I promised to get right on it.

Sunday November 24th I went to the Methodist Church in the morning. There was no anthem, and no choir. I went to Sunday School in the afternoon, and to the Presbyterian Church in the evening.

Monday November 25th I got up at 6:30 am and got dressed and fed. Mr. Latimer, seeing my light, was afraid I would go off without him, so he came over and told me to wait for him. About 8:00 am he came over and told me that he was going by way of the office, and asked me to take the level up to a spot that he designated. The object of our taking the level over was to run a grade line along a flume that had hollows in it like a cows back. After connecting the grades we cached the level and I took the chain over to a pipeline about ½ mile distant and we tried to locate a post in a sand hill with no success. Then I went up to Lateral Z which I recommended measuring. I had nearly finished when the “old man” came in sight and taking the chain we ascertained the length of several flumes that had not yet been measured (linear). We had to light matches in order to see the numbers on the chain by the time that we quit. I got into town about 6:30 pm, soaked with the rain that was drizzling down.

Tuesday November 26th Finished Lateral Z and nearly finished Lateral V. In the evening I went to a meeting of the Y.P.C.U. Consecration night. We had a good meeting. Afterward I saw Miss McKinley and Miss Campbell home.

Wednesday November 27th Finished Lateral V and then measured an auxiliary ditch from 4 mile. It snowed the last 2 hours but I finished the 3700 feet of flume before I left for home. I went over to the Latimer’s and spent the evening.

Thursday November 28th I shifted a couple of posts down in the tulles and then went down to the office and made out my report on the flumes.

Friday November 29th We went down toward Dog Lake and measured part of Sub main K and Lateral V, then I went over to McLean’s camp for dinner and was introduced to his daughter, Alice, and Myrtle, his wife. I am afraid that I rather exceeded my noon hour. They’re pretty nice people.

Sunday November 30th We finished Lateral V and measured all but 1000 feet of Sub main L as well as a couple of small laterals. I went to choir practice at Mitchell’s this evening.

Sunday December 1st I went to the English Church in the morning, There were about 20 or 30 people present. I went to Sunday School in afternoon and to the Methodist Church in the evening.

Monday December 2nd Mr. Latimer couldn’t find the figures for a couple of flumes up at 3 mile, so I had to go up and measure them again. I had to hustle to get through before dark and got back to the office about 6;00 pm just as Mr. Latimer found the missing notes.

Tuesday December 3rd I finished Sub main L. and commenced on the Main Ellis Creek South. In the evening I went to a meeting of the Y.P.C.U.

Wednesday December 4th I worked in the office all morning. I got Cheque for $60.00, and spent $30.00. After dinner I went up the road and finished 4 posts of Sub mains L. and K. that had been left. I got through about 3:30 pm and, as it was raining quite heavily, I was forced to take refuge in McLean’s camp. They wanted me to stay for supper, but I had to get the notes to the office before 6:00 pm, so about 5:00 pm I pulled out.

Thursday December 5th We continued measuring Main Ditch. I went to a meeting of the Literary Society where we had a debate on a resolution that Canada has now reached the stage in her history when she should assume the duties of Nationhood. The affirmative won.

Friday December 6th We measured flumes all day.

Saturday December 7th We continued on Main flume to Station 139+50. In the evening, I went to choir practice.

Sunday December 8th I went to the Presbyterian Church in the evening.

Monday December 9th I worked in the office all morning till 11:00 am and then set out for Dog Lake. McLean saw me passing his camp and came out to the road. He wanted some information as to size and location of a certain flume that was to be built. Then I went over to their camp for dinner. After dinner, I went on up to the flume and laboured 'til evening.

Tuesday December 10th The engineering force of the Southern Okanagan Land Company went up to 3 Mile Point this morning to change the slope and size of a certain number of lots. Part of the party rode and the rest walked. I was the rest. The enterprising settlers have been plowing up their land between here and 4 Mile Point, and consequently I have to walk over plowed ground in cutting cross country or walk away around by the road. A slight drizzle of snow and rain has been falling all day and the same engineering corps became thoroughly saturated. I went over to the Latimer’s for supper and afterwards went to a meeting of the Y.P.C.U.

Wednesday December 11th We measured flumes all day and have nearly finished measuring the Main Ditch. After supper I went to bed and settled down for a good read. About 9:00 pm, Tupper came over and wanted me to go over to his place to attend a practice of the Penticton Amateur Discord Orchestra. Pentictonites will once more have the pleasure of listening to this famous troupe tomorrow night, so I got up and went downtown and got a couple of mouth organs and then went to the practice. Tupper was on the violin, Hibbert on the autoharp, Harris on banjo, and yours truly. on the harmonica.

Thursday December 12th Mr. Latimer had said that he would be going up to the Main Ditch this morning to run levels over the ditch, so I took the rod and chain up with me, and waited around for a while, but he did not turn up, so I went up to where I had left off before and finished the main flume before dinner and then finished Lateral A D in the afternoon. After supper, I went downtown and had a shave and went over to the meeting of the Literary Society. Gordon Harris and I went together. We were a trifle late, and just as we got inside the door, the president, Tupper called on the Penticton Amateur Discord Orchestra for a selection. We gave them “Georgia” and “John Brown’s Body” and received a thunderous ovation. We at first refused to go up, but at last in response to repeated encores went up and played “Coming Through the Rye” and “Auld Lang Syne.” Very wet snow was falling when the meeting adjourned and the streets were covered with slush which made walking very pleasant.

Friday December 13th When I wakened this morning, the rain was falling, so I did not get up until I felt like it. About 12:30 left the tent for work. The ground was covered with slushy wet snow, and walking through it was not a keen delight. Measured Laterals A.E., A.C. and part of A.F. before dark.

Saturday December 14th I took the level up with me this morning, to the main ditch and cached it there. Then I started measuring Lateral A.E. I saw the smoke of Mr. Latimer's campfire, rising in the air so I set out for it. I had lunch when I reached it. After dinner, we ran levels in the ditch until it became too dark to see with the telescope. I went downtown for supper, and had a shave and went to choir practice.

Sunday December 15th Today we held two Anniversary services in the Methodist Church. There was no Presbyterian service today. Mr. Henderson from Vernon preached at both services.

Monday December 16th I went up towards Dog Lake and waited for the “old man.” When he arrived, he said that he would have to be away for about an hour so I built a fire and sat down. Mr. Latimer got back about noon, so before doing any work, we had lunch, then we worked the rest of the afternoon.

Tuesday December 17th Mr. Latimer had to go up to 3 Mile to inspect some work that was being done there, so I went up to 3 Mile myself to finish a piece of work that had not been completed. I got back about 1:30 pm and met Mr. Latimer just starting out for the Main Ditch. He said that it would be hardly worthwhile to run any levels that afternoon, so I took the notebook and measured a few odds and ends of flume that had been built since I went over the flumes. While thus engaged, I came upon Mr. Latimer and the level. He had changed his mind and impressed Mr. McLean to fill my position pro-tem. Mr. McLean seemed very willing to surrender the rod when I arrived on the scene. One would have said that he was glad to get rid of it. After I got into town, I had a bath and shave and went to the Y.P.C.U.

Wednesday December 18th Mr. Latimer went up to the dam, as I put in the day packing up and making out the report on the flumes.

Thursday December 19th It snowed in the morning and I did not go out until about 10:30 am. We finished taking the levels of the main flume and ditch, and after measuring a few laterals, went home.

Friday December 20th I got my check for $45.00 and paid Mr. Latimer $10.00 for the tent. I finished packing up and sent the baggage down to the wharf. After supper I got a berth on the boat, and went to the Sunday School Concert.

Saturday December 21st I got to Vernon about 11:30 and remained there until 3:00 pm. I had dinner at the Kalamalka and afterwards walked up and down the streets admiring the beautiful and wonderful sights. When I got to Sicamous about 6:00 pm, I had supper. The first section of “96” came in about 10:10 pm, and the second section came in soon after. We passed “97” at Kamloops.

Sunday December 22nd I got into Vancouver about 1:30 pm, and took the “Princess Royal” for Victoria. We reached Victoria about 7:30 pm and went up to the Dominion.


Coldstream Estate
Web Editor remark- Note- Goldstream Estate consisted of 1,000 acres, of fertile Orchard Land, owned by Earl Grey.
Lord Aberdeen was a shareholder of 10,000 acres, Sir Eric Swayne owned 1500 acres.
Swayne was the Ex-Governor of British Honduras.
The Honorable Price Ellison, Minister of Finance in BC Govt. owned an Orchard here as well.
1921, the Distiller Sir James Buchanan, from the old Country, bought the ranch near Vernon BC.
He bought it from the Goldstream Estate Company.

Saturday Sept. 18th We finished traversing N. Ditch.

Thursday September 30th. We finished S. Ditch and closed traverse to one minute

Friday October 1st. We started traversing Coldstream Creek from the Dam to the Learmount boundary.

Tuesday October 5th We finished traversing Coldstream Creek from the Dam to the Learmount boundary. Operations were considerably delayed by rain in the latter part of September and one or two days in October. Walsh left today. We worked about an hour on the pipeline. I received a letter from my brother Douglas.

Wednesday October 6th. We worked all day on the pipeline. Barton came out in the morning and we decided to change West’s line in order to avoid dropping the pipe into a hollow. We had to run the line through the orchard and experienced some difficulty in running a straight line in a suitable direction through the trees. We ran from Station 60 to 75, and ran out stakes to Station 89. It rained for about an hour in the afternoon. Thursday October 7th. We ran out stakes up to Station 99, and levels up to Station 97. Cut a line through the bush for 1,000 feet. There is a light fall of snow on the hilltops

Friday October 8th. We finished the pipeline of the Domestic Water Supply to Station 109 + 25 in the morning. In the afternoon, I did office work. Very heavy rain fell in the afternoon. I wrote a letter home in the evening.

Saturday October 9th In the morning, as it threatened rain, we remained in camp and made some very necessary alterations and improvements. We papered the inside of the tent wall all around and put a floor on the part that had not been covered. In the afternoon we went up to the Reservoir Site and ran out stakes for 29 Stations and leveled down to about 10.

Sunday October 10th I didn’t go to church today. I packed West’s transit.

Monday October 11th. I finished the pipeline of the Domestic Water Supply from 0 to 54 and spent an hour on Ranch topography.

Tuesday October 12th - Wednesday, October 13th. We worked all day topogging Ranch.

Thursday October 14th. Percy Hilton and I went up Mt. Araat and made some stakes. About 8:30 am, Mr. Ashcroft (see bio below) came up and we worked all morning running a road grade down into the valley. Percy and I went back to the ranch for dinner. After dinner we took the transit up to the intake of the Domestic Water Supply Pipeline and gave Lindsay some grades. Then we went back to the ranch and ran a few levels for Mr. Speakman, and I finished up the afternoon in the office while Percy made some stakes and took down a tent.

Friday October 15th We commenced the Re-survey of the Coldstream Boundary. Some of the country, miles of it in fact, that we have to cover is certainly fierce. Some of it is actually straight up and down. We have been working at this all week and expect to be through some time next week. Saturday October 16th Game seems to be fairly plentiful in the hills. Today we came upon a bunch of 12 deer. They appeared quite tame and we were able to approach within 200 feet. Grouse also seemed to be very plentiful.

About two months ago, (Aug 9, 1909) while we were up at Lake Aberdeen, the Okanagan Hotel in Vernon, was burned with the loss of eleven lives, At first no one had any information as to who was the incendiary, if any, or if they did, they kept it to themselves. Then after the jury had about given up the investigation in despair, a letter was produced, signed by one Alec Smith, stating that he didn’t set the Hotel on fire, but that he knew who had done the deed. Suspicion thus being turned towards Smith, many people at once came forward with evidence, that under ordinary circumstances might have seemed trivial, but now seemed clothed with a new importance. Added to all, the fact that Smith had mysteriously disappeared seemed to fix the crime on him almost beyond a doubt. For about a month no sign could be found of the fugitive. Suddenly someone discovered him in a camp about a mile or so up Larch Creek, just beyond the Coldtream Boundary. A special force of Indian trackers was set on the trail of the incendiary, but were utterly baffled and at last had to return to town, unsuccessful. Last Monday Percy and I went into Lindsay’s camp for dinner. Lindsay told us of a suspicious looking tent that he had discovered about two miles from his camp, up Deer Creek, the source of the Domestic Water Supply System. He said that on Sunday he had gone for a walk up the creek and had come upon a tent almost hidden from view by fallen trees. In the tent was a stove in which a fire was burning brightly. On the floor was scattered a lot of corn husks. There seemed to be no one about the place, although the fire had been replenished just before he arrived. Next day, Tuesday, Mr. Ashcroft was up to the camp and Lindsay told him of his discovery, whereupon Mr. Ashcroft hurried down to the Ranch and phoned into town for the police. That evening a couple of police went up to Lindsay’s camp and he took them up to the suspected tent. The fire was nearly out and no one was in sight, so as it was becoming dark and cold, they decided to leave the hunt till the morning. In the morning several Provincial Police and a gang of Indian “trackers?” set out on the trail. They have been hunting ever since, but so far the wily fugitive has utterly eluded their efforts.
(Memorial for the deceased in Pleasant Valley Cemetery, Vernon BC)

Thursday October 21st We have been engaged in running a line eastward from the centre of Section. 8

Friday October. 22nd. We continued running a line eastward from the centre of Section. 8. A man by the name of Middleton has taken up a pre-emption adjoining the Coldstream boundry, and has commenced putting up a house. The house or cabin is finished except the roof, and the filling in of the insertions between the logs, and is 30 feet inside the Coldstream Boundry. His pre-emption post is some seven chains North of the boundary

Monday October 25th – Wednesday October 27th Worked on the S. boundary of the Coldstream Estate.

Thursday October 28th. We started out this morning working on the S. boundary of the Coldstream Estate, but it began to rain, so we came back. It has rained all day, and is raining heavily now at 9:30 pm, so I closed up my notes for the circle traverse Longitudes. 00.003 chains and Latitudes 00.126. Sent to John Palmer & Company, $7.00 for a pair of boots. Bought a chair and some Japanese matting.

Friday, October 29th. It rained heavily most of the night; and this morning the tops of the surrounding hills were covered with snow. It rained off and on during the day, so we didn’t go out. I took the opportunity to work up my notes of the Coldstream Creek Traverse.

Saturday October 30th We went out and ran out the line to about 56 chains.

Sunday October 31st Today we put in time around the ranch.

Monday, November 1st. We ran out the line to the corner and found the old post about 222 links south of our line. I told Mr. Ashcroft about it in the evening, and he said to re-run the line so as to hit the post. I will have to run the line with an azimuth of 267º 01’ instead of 270º 00’. The snow was falling on the hills around us when we quit tonight, and the rain is falling heavily now. Weather indications point to a heavy fall of snow this winter.

Tuesday November 2nd. I commenced running the true line.

Thursday November 4th. I went up the valley with Barton and surveyed off some lots for a man by the name of Gaust. I had dinner at Robbin’s.

Thursday November 11th. I finished running line west towards the lake.

Friday November 12th I commenced topographic survey of Coldstream Estate, taking in all fields, buildings, ditches, roads, brush, creeks, rock etc.

Wednesday December 15th I finished the traverse of South Canal to Deer Creek and commenced to traverse Deer Creek and pipeline. I received letter from West. The weather is cloudy but mild with very little snow.

Thursday December 16th I traversed Deer Creek down to the intake of Walker’s Ditch and traversed Rayburn’s Ditch and a ditch along the south of 32 S.

Friday December 17th I traversed Deer Creek from 32 S. to the intake of Walker’s Ditch. I cut a line for the traverse of Deer Creek from 32 S. nearly to Coldstream Creek. The creek bed is dry for a considerable distance. Apparently, some years ago, a large flood of water came down this channel, as the banks have been washed back on both sides for a distance of half a chain or more in places, and rise ten to fifteen feet above the bed of the creek. This old watercourse is now grown up with cottonwood and birch.

Saturday December 18th I cut a line from Deer Creek along Coldstream Creek, down to where a fence crosses the creek. I went into town after supper and bought a pair of pants and a pair of eyeglasses.

Monday December 20th I traversed down Deer Creek and Coldstream Creek to the fence. Percy broke the chain again.

Tuesday December 21st It snowed in the morning, so Percy got in some more wood and I worked on the map. In the afternoon, I located two pipe lines crossing the field southwest of the jail. I cut a line on Coldstream Creek to the Bullpen.

Wednesday December 22nd It snowed a little in the morning. In the afternoon, I went out and cleared a line for the traverse of the Cut-off of Deer Creek and of the creek bed from Mud Lake to Coldstream Creek.

Thursday December 23rd I cut a line on Mud Lake Creek bed in the forenoon. After dinner I traversed Walker’s Ditch from 36 S. to 41 S. and part of the Deer Creek cut-off.

Friday December 24th I finished the traverse of the Deer Creek cut-off. I traversed Mud Lake and part of the watercourse from Mud Lake to Coldstream Creek.

Saturday December 25th I spent Christmas at the Ranch.

Monday December 27th I traversed the Mud Lake watercourse nearly to Coldstream Creek.

Tuesday December 28th I checked up on the Anglican Cemetery. The bearing is N. 24º E. instead of being due North. I ran out pipe line from Abbott field to the reservoir. I traversed the flume from the reservoir west to the road.

Wednesday December 29th I traversed Coldstream Creek east from Deer Creek to the Corrals and traversed a spring from Corrals to it’s origin in the Goat field. I measured a ditch along Long Lake Road.

Thursday December 30th I went up to Learmouth and traversed the Brewer field. I had dinner at the Learmouth. There was a light fall of snow during the day.

Friday December 31st It snowed in the morning. In the afternoon I traversed part of Coldstream Creek through the Rose Bush.


Saturday January 1st The temperature today is -11ºF. below zero.

Monday January 3rd We finished the Creek this afternoon.

Tuesday January 4th I worked on the map most of day and did some work on the pipeline.

Wednesday January 5th We ran the pipeline to the south corner near the Fruit House.

Thursday January 6th We surveyed the clearings near the North Ditch intake and traversed the fence around the wheat field east of Kiefer Field Subdivision.

Friday January 7th I staked out the ground west of the Hen house for drainage

Saturday January 8th I worked on drainage for half a day and put in half a day on the pipeline.

Monday January 10th It snowed in the morning. In the afternoon, I traversed a creek in the Middleton Subdivision.

Tuesday January 11th I started on the Right of Way of a pipe through the Middleton Subdivision from the North Ditch.

Wednesday January 12th I continued the Right of Way and put in posts. The ground is as hard as rock. It took one hour to put in one post.

Thursday January 13th I continued traversing the Right of Way.

Friday January 14th I finished the Right of Way. I received guitar from Eaton’s.

Saturday January 15th I commenced surveying the road between Lots 122 and 123 to the North Ditch.

Monday January 17th I set posts on the road and subdivided Lot 123.

Tuesday January 18th I subdivided Lot 122. There was a heavy rain for about an hour.

Wednesday January 19th I cut 30 posts and had Percy take them down to Spicer field in a rig and distribute them. I worked on the Spicer field Subdivision in the afternoon.

Thursday January 20th I worked on the Spicer Subdivision.

Friday January 21st I put in 5 posts. There are 3 posts yet to be put in.

Saturday January 22nd I finished survey of Spicer Subdivision in the morning. In the afternoon, I put in three posts, and one post in Lot 115. It rained in the evening.

Sunday January 23rd Today it rained most of the day.

Monday January 24th It rained all morning. In the afternoon, I marked the posts in Spicer Subdivision and finished Lot 115A. I worked a little on the pipeline. I put about two weeks on location of ditches in Long Lake Subdivision.

Tuesday March 1st. About 2 inches of snow fell last night, and today a very warm wind came in from the West and the snow melted very fast. Last night, about.6 inches of snow covered the ground and it was also melted. The result, is that all the ditches are full of water and the roads in places, are raging torrents. Our tent is an island in the midst of a watery waste. Luckily the floor is raised high enough above the ground so that the water does not reach us. I worked on the map all day getting out areas with the planimeter.

Wednesday March 2nd. The warm weather continued. The country is flooded with water. This is the worst flood known for years. Usual old timers and weather wiseacres rack their brains for a parallel. Gray Canal is breaking through it’s banks, one just above the Ranch. The North Ditch broke through down by Spicer Field. Walker’s Ditch is causing consternation among the Latters. The telephones are ringing all day. The company is blamed for sudden thaw. The Latters are very much annoyed. They want the Company to put stop to flood at once. I worked on the map all day. Percy went with George Coleman for the day.

Thursday March 3rd. We went up to Deep Lake Canyon this morning and cleared line and set points from, 37 S. to Deep Lake. After dinner we tried to traverse, but owing to the violence of the wind, we were unable to do more than a Station, so leaving Percy to cut a little brush, I went back to the office and finished the day working up my standard traverse notes. I sent $30.00 to Eaton’s for Clothes etc.

Friday, March 4th. The wind blew strongly all morning but dropped about noon. On account of the wind, I did not proceed with Deep Lake traverse in the morning, but worked on my notes. After dinner we went up to Deep Lake Canyon and traversed about 70 chains from Mud Lake to Deep Lake. After supper I worked until 10:30 pm in the office.

Saturday, March 5th We went up to Deep Lake in the morning and cleared line to Station 15. After lunch we traversed from station 8 to Station 15, tying in the section corner at the west end of Deep Lake.

Monday, March 7th. We closed the traverse of Deep Lake Canyon by tying in to the S.W. corner of Rutherfords. We worked on standard traverse notes in the afternoon.. I worked in the office until March 21st.

Monday March 21st In the morning, Barton, Percy and I went up to Lavington. I drove up with Barton in his rig, while Percy followed in another rig with the baggage. We reached Lavington about 10:00 am and, after Robbins had allotted us our Quarters, Barton and I started running peg levels from the Lavington bridge to the Dominion Water Pipe. After dinner Barton and Percy went up to the Grey Canal so Robbins found a man to carry the rod for me and I continued the peg levels to the reservoir. My rodman was a big, rather intelligent, Englishman, and after a few lessons, he was able to get along quite well.

Tuesday March 22nd Starting again at Lavington Bridge, I ran peg levels to the intake of pipe in Coldstream Creek. When I came in for dinner, I found that a rodman, by the name of Morrison, had been sent out from town,. He claimed to have two years experience in railroad work, so I took him with me after dinner. When I set him to work, I found that he didn’t know the first thing about the kind of rod we were using, so I had to spend a lot of time teaching him and had to watch him pretty closely.

Wednesday March 23rd We chained from the reservoir to the intake pipeline and put in profile stakes. After dinner, we started from Lavington Bridge and leveled up to the intake.

Thursday March 24th Barton went back to the office in the morning and I continued leveling finishing about 3:00 pm. Robbins had a team waiting for us and our baggage put in the wagon, so on our return, we were driven to the Ranch. Morrison left on March 25th. We worked about the Ranch on topographic surveys etc. till about April 2nd.

Monday, April 4th. About 8:00 am, a Mr. Williams called for us in a Democrat. We went with him to a place about 12 miles S.W. of Vernon, where a man by the name of Napoleon Sellwyn wanted to get 40 acres surveyed. We put up at the house of a Mr. Rose which we reached shortly before dinner. After dinner we went to Napoleon’s place and found the N.E. corner of his pre-emption On the line running West from there, we found a line picket about 20 chains distant. As I was unable to see it from the corner, I set up halfway between the two points, and set the instrument on line. Then I set a point on line visible from the corner. On that line I ran to the N.W. corner of the Section and I found that distance to be 39.561 chains. I found the direction of the line to be N87º n55’ W. by the time we the corner, it was 6:30 pm so went to supper

Tuesday April 5th We chained the east and south boundaries of the ¼ Section.

Wednesday April 6th. We surveyed the ¼ / ¼ Section and finished by 5:30 pm. Right after supper we got into the awaiting Democrat with our baggage and departed for Vernon. We reached town about 8:30 pm. Here we waited for about an hour, waiting for Joe Harwood, with whom Mr. Sellwyn had arranged to drive us out to the ranch. One of Joe’s youngsters, a little brownie of a boy, went out to search for his sire. It was comical to see the little beggar trotting up and down the street, looking first in one place and then in another for his Father. At last we decided to wait no longer, so Mr. Sellwyn went up to the Palace Livery Stables and got a rig for us there. We reached the Ranch at 10:00 pm.

Thursday April 7th. We worked in the office all day. Mr. Sellwyn came up to the office and paid about $50.00 into the coffers of the Company in return for our work. I joined the ranks of the B.C. Horse this evening. I was introduced to the Commanding Officer, Lieutenant Sunderland who seems very decent. Barton also joined. About 13 mustered for first drill which took place at the ranch.

Friday April 8th. I worked in office all day and inspected a horse that Lindsay is offering for sale for a price of $125.00. I decided to buy it if I could raise the money from Mr. Knight. I spoke to Mr. Knight about it, and he did not seem to know what to do about it, so I laid the matter before Mr. Ashcroft and asked his advice. I considered that Mr. Knight should settle with me and then do what he could do with Mr. Smith. Mr. Ashcroft made out two formal accounts, one being my account for $260.00, and the other being the office account for $100.00. Mr. Knight was going into town after dinner to get a draft on Smith for the amount. If Smith refuses to honour the draft, it will be necessary for him to give his reasons for so doing. I expect that now that Mr. Knight sees that I hold him personally responsible for the amount due me, he will take a more lively interest in the matter. We also made arrangements with Mr. Knight to supply us with a cook and camp outfit. We expect to go down to Long Lake next Monday and to camp in Lonely Bay for about a month. We intend first of all to make a permanent traverse of the lake shore in the vicinity and then spend some time on topographic work.

Saturday April 9th I worked in the office all day.

Sunday, April 10th. About 16 troopers including Yours Truly, turned out to drill at 11:20 am. We drilled until dinner-time and after dinner had about half an hours more drill. After drill, I was sworn in and became a member of the Coldstream Squadron and the B.C. Horse.

Monday, April 11th. We packed our blankets and other necessary articles and had Barter, our tote boy, take them down to Long Lake for us. Barton rode down with him to show him the way. I walked down and Percy went on his wheel (bike). On the way I bought Brew’s horse for the $125.00 he wanted, paying him $60.00 down. The wagon from town , bringing the camp outfit and the cook arrived about 11:00 am and we put up the 3 (12’ x 14’) tents, One for the cook, one for the chainman and one for Barton and myself. After dinner, which consisted of tea and pancakes, Percy and Jennings put up the two remaining tents, (We put up the Cook’s tent before dinner), while Barton and I got busy making tables, stools, etc. Before dinner while waiting for the rig from town, Barton and I went up to the Coldstream boathouse and got the boat. We found the boat padlocked to the boathouse, but with the aid of a couple of carpenters who happened to building a flume nearby, we were able to free the lock. We piled in some lumber and a couple of trestles For tables and pulled back to our camping ground.. We are camped on a sort of peninsula with water on three sides of us to the lake north of Rattlesnake Point.. To the East, the land juts up fairly rapidly. We found that no coal oil had been sent out so we had to go to bed with the birds.

Tuesday, April 12th. After breakfast we started out, and starting from one of the lot corners, we tied onto a Section corner. We were two or three hours getting from the Lot corner to the Section corner on account of the fog, rising from the lake which made it very difficult to see. We managed to reach the section corner about 10:00 am and ran 23.00 chains due South, when we were obliged to stop for dinner. After dinner we sent Percy in the boat to get us some coal oil and fresh meat. Starting against S. 23, we ran due west for 34.00 chains, then ran due south for 12.00 chains, where we had to stop for supper.

Wednesday April 13th We reached W. 45.00 S. 83 by noon. After dinner we went back to zero and ran 269º 59’ to the shore of the lake. Then we ran up the boundary of Lots 3 and 4 then tied into 3/4/R. A cold wind blew all day.

Thursday April 14th We started at S. 23 W. 25 and ran north to 50.006 W. 25 closing within ½ link each way. I kept Percy with me and Barton kept Jennings. We ran levels all day. Mr. Newman came over for his saw and remained for dinner. After dinner I tied in Shuthless’ place and from W. 33 W. 40 ran co-ordinates to S. 42.377 W. 52.971.

Sunday, April 17th. Percy and I went up to the Ranch. Barton went up last night. Percy rode his bike. On my way I stopped at Brew’s and got my horse and borrowed a Fred Lindsay’s saddle. I got to the ranch just in time for drill. Rifles were issued for the first time. After dinner, I started back for home leaving the saddle at Lindsay’s camp. I staked out the horse with a short piece of rope that I had, which he managed to get around his hind feet and rubbed some of the skin off. Fred Lindsay came over with his camera and took a photo of the bunch.

Monday, April 18th. I quit work about 4:15 pm, borrowed Barton’s saddle, and rode to town. I bought myself a saddle and tethering rope etc. and two pair of boots. Coming home I noticed that Rodney, the horse, was somewhat lame, caused I discovered, by the rubbing of the rope around his feet on Sunday.

Tuesday May 10th. It is raining this morning. We are nearing the completion of our work here and expect to move in about a week. I have traversed the shore of Long Lake nearly to the South Boundry of the Coldstream Estate. I have four more courses to measure from 59 to 63. Then I intend to survey a block of land for Dickout and Barton. Verrall’s camp has been shut down and one of his rodmen is coming with us.

Tuesday May 17th. We moved back to the ranch and worked on an irrigation system for Cozen’s Bay. After leaving Latimer in Penticton, I wrote my preliminary examinations for B.C.L.S. and articled with A. E. Ashcroft, B.C.L.S. at Coldstream, paying $90.00 per month to board myself.

Tuesday May 31st I wrote to Humphrys & Tupper, Land Surveyors of Vancouver about job and arranged with Ashcroft about the transfer of Articles.

Friday June 3rd. I received a telegram from Humphrys & Tupper asking me to come down as soon as possible.

Saturday June 4th. I packed up and went down to town with Barton and took the train in the afternoon for Vancouver. Before leaving I gave my horse to Ashcroft to clear up the proportion of his fee of $500.00 for term of 3 years articles. Uncle Ed got on the train at Armstrong and he wanted me to get off at Salmon Arm so we went up to the ranch.

Sunday June 5th I caught the C.P.R. Limited in the evening.

Monday June 6th I arrived in Vancouver in the morning and called on Humphreys.

Wednesday June 8th. I spent most of the day on Fremline Company’s Lot and 2 hours on Lots near corner of Davies and Homer.

Thursday June 9th I spent the morning on Van Mitt’s Lot.

Friday June 10th. I surveyed all day on East Hastings.

Monday June 13th. I subdivided Lots 90, 146 & 147, District Lot 37, West Collingwood.

Wednesday June 15th I went to Victoria for a visit home, and stayed till Saturday night June 18th.

Sunday June 19th I got back to Vancouver in the morning.

Monday, June 20th I spent the day assembling the outfit and getting it down to the C.P.R. Station. I had considerable difficulty in getting them all together, 11 in all. About 4:00 pm, all had been accounted for except three men, I found them standing in front of a saloon, full of good cheer and bad liquor. It was quite a relief when the train finally pulled out at 7:30 pm with all on board. The three drunks, with some additions, repaired to the smoking car and raised their voices in bacalian harmonies.
Tuesday June 21st We reached Ashcroft at 4:10 am and registered at the Grand Central Hotel. The three inebriated gentlemen continued to be noisy for a time but gradually became drowsy and sank into drunken slumber on the Hotel veranda. We arranged with the B.C. Express for transportation to 70-Mile House for $9:00 per head and four cents a pound for any baggage in excess of 40 pounds per man. We left Ashcroft at 9:00 am in a special six-horse stage and traveled up the long narrow valley of the Bonaparte River, stopping at the 12-Mile House for dinner. We reached Clinton at 5:30 pm and put up at the Palace Hotel. It was a most comfortable home-like temperance lodging-house with an excellent table. Boulton and I had a lot of trouble with Kelly and Wallace, who thoroughly enjoyed themselves in the effort to consume all, the available alcoholic supplies in town so they were both pretty well intoxicated and a constant source of worry to us. We went up to the saloon man and asked him to refuse liquor to these two men. He promised, but I doubted him, and when I came back to our lodging place, there was Kelly, staggering around, beastly drunk. We arranged with the store keeper to send our supplies up to 70 Mile house. Our stage starts at 7:00 am tomorrow morning.

Wednesday June 22nd. We left Clinton shortly after 7:00 am for 70 Mile House, 57 miles from Ashcroft.. Changed horses at the 59-Mile House. About 13 miles north of Clinton, we came to the Chasm, a huge crevasse in the face of nature. On each side of the Chasm which is about 20 chains wide, the sides drop perpendicularly about 150 feet and then slope steeply down for perhaps 300 feet to the bottom. It seems as though some terrific cataclysm had split the rocks asunder. We reached our stopping place about 12:15 pm and had dinner at the 70 Mile House. We found a party of people stranded there in consequence of the tires of their automobile having worn out and they had no spares. They had been there for two days. We congratulated ourselves on having taken the stage. After dinner we set to work and put up our camp, consisting of cook tent, a tent for Higgins, Boulton and myself and three tents for the men. After we passed the Chasm, we found ourselves on a wide stretching prairie country covered mostly with black pine and poplar, with interesting patches of open country dotted with numerous sloughs and lakes.

Thursday June 23rd. I ran a traverse along the Bonaparte River, about 20 chains past the 2-mile post tying in the location posts of Lots 1600 and 1601. Carswell, Kelly and Barnard came with me. Boulton took some observations on the sun.

Friday June 24th Boulton commenced running the east side of Lot 1601 on the bearing he obtained from his observation. I continued my traverse to the 3-mile post tying in location posts of Lots 1602 & 1603. I traded Barnard for Wallace. In the afternoon Boulton took some more observations on the sun. I ran my traverse to the Cariboo Road.

Saturday June 25th. I took an observation on Polaris at 1:25 am which agreed with Boulton’s observation of the 24th within 6 feet. This made the assumed bearing on which I had run my traverse 2º 54’ short so Boulton had to re-run the east boundary Lot 1601. I started at the S.E. boundary of Lot 1601 and ran 73.00 chains north before noon. Morgan brought dinner out to the two-mile post for us. After dinner, we went back to where we stopped before dinner. On the way I became separated from the others on account my taking a short cut across a dry lake while the crew went around it. They lost their bearings somehow and didn’t find their way back to work until half an hour after I had. I had the line cut for another hub before they eventually stumbled on to the line. All afternoon we ran through scorched black pine over very rocky ground and only succeeded in running 55 chains. About 5:00 pm we started for camp, Carswell in the lead. I thought he was going to go north, so I struck off about south west, and after a while Wallace caught up with me. We struck a cowpath after a while which took us to the camp. Ten minutes later Carswell and Kelly came into camp. After supper, I went up to the 3 mile post to get the figures on a chaining I had forgotten to put down.

Sunday, June 26th Three or four of the boys borrowed a rig from the boarding house people and went fishing in a lake about 10 miles south east of 70 Mile. The lake, in which they fished, is formed by the beavers, building a large dam across the lower end of a meadow. At one time, it is said, a considerable stream flowed from springs rising in the meadow, but after the dam was built, the water appeared to sink in the ground and only a small trickle runs over the top of the dam. A large number of trout have been imprisoned by the dam which appears to have been built a long time ago. These trout have multiplied in their confined quarters, and some it is said have attained very large proportions. The boys caught 4 fish, the largest weighed 2 lbs.

Monday, June 27th I ran out Section lines and tied onto Boulton’s line. I found that I was out 90 links in the north and south line, and 30 links in the east and west line. I triangulated a line across a lake for Boulton.

Tuesday June 28th I ran 40 chains east from the north east corner of Lot 1600. Checked up chaining on the lines and also measured lines and checked angles. I found that I was out 12’ at the N.W. corner of Lot 1600, which would make me right in my east and west line. I chained the west line 2 ½ times and was always 90 links short.. Then one of the chainmen remembered making a short chainage on the first line when we crossed a slough about 15 chains wide. As it happened, this was the only part of the line that we didn’t check. Most of the fellows have been under the weather today for one reason or another. Carswell was too sick to go out. Boulton went over to see H. Neville Smith, who is also surveying in this district. While I was my first traverse, Smith came along on his way to Ashcroft and said that he understood that he was to do the locations first and then go on to his other work. He had had instructions to call on the Government Agent at Clinton and get the notices. I sent him on to camp to see Boulton who had the maps. Smith called at the camp and then on to Victoria to see the Surveyor-General. There was some mix-up in the instructions. He thought that he was to do the area that we were doing. Meanwhile his parties kept on running out our Sections. In a few days we got a wire from him saying that we were right and that he had instructed his men to discontinue work on the purchases.

Wednesday, June 29th We ran a traverse of a large alkali lake, containing probably about 100 acres in Lot 1601, offset the north west corner of Lot 1600, 893 chains North. Boulton, in running the North boundry of Lot 1604, ran into one of Smith’s Sections at 16.00 chains east from the north west corner of Lot 1604. Consequently we decided to drop this group for the present and move on to the 6-mile post at Green Lake.

Thursday, June 30th Boulton took a couple of men and traversed along the Bonaparte Road east from the 7 mile post leaving me to look after the moving of our camp. We struck camp after breakfast and cleaned up, piling up the tent poles against the fence and burning up the rubbish. Then we had to wait until 10:00 am for one of the 70 Mile House teams to arrive from Green Lake. We loaded the camp outfit on two wagons and roped it up. . We reached camp at 12:30 pm, and had dinner at Smith’s camp. In the afternoon we pitched our camp at the south east corner of Green Lake, a semi-alkali lake about 20 miles in length. The water is not fit for drinking, although coarse fish, probably squawfish, are plentiful. We get fairly good water from a well.

Friday, July 1st. While I was with Boulton, we took an observation of Polaris for Azimuth at 1:00 am. We ran the west boundary of Lot 1604 to Green Lake and triangulated across an interposing arm of the lake. Then we traversed along the shore of the lake, east for about a mile and a half. I heard this evening that Smith had had both wrists broken in an auto accident on his way up from Ashcroft.

Saturday, July 2nd Starting at the S.E. corner of Lot 1604, we ran north one mile. I sent Morgan to leave the lunch on the lake shore about 8:00 am. He reached the lake alright, but was unable to find his way back, and we had considerable trouble in finding him at noon. We had a heavy shower of rain and hail at noon. About 4:00 pm, when we had gone about 40 chains west of north east Lot 1604, it came on to rain very heavily, and we stopped work and went back to camp. We went over to see Kirkland in the evening. He says that he is not sure that it was their Mr. Smith that was injured in the accident.

Monday July 4th Starting where we stopped work Saturday, we ran to the lake, closing in on the traverse by two links. We had dinner at south east Lot 1605, south west Lot 1606. Thence ran east 70 chains.

Tuesday July 5th We continued to south east Lot 1606, thence north to north east 1606 and 20.00 chains south to south west Lot 1607, thence east 8 chains.

Wednesday July 6th We continued to south east Lot 1607, thence 15 chains North.

Thursday, July 7th. We moved camp to Tin Cup Spring near the 12-mile post on Bonaparte Road. One McGregor, a rancher, left his happy home, near the 20 mile post, in order to transport our camp outfit. About 10:30 am he drove into camp. As we had too much for one load, we piled on the tents, personal effects, and kitchen outfit with enough provisions to last us over a day or two, leaving the main bulk of provisions to come in the next load. We reached Tin Cup Spring about 2:00 pm. Smith’s party had pitched camp here a day or so before, so we are again neighbours.

Friday July 8th We continued the east boundry of Lot 1607 to the corner of Lots 1607, 1608, 1609, and 1610, thence ran east 56 chains.

Saturday July 9th We continued the line the to corner of Lots 1609, 1610, and 1611, thence ran south 54 chains and triangulated across the lake and traversed the arm of lake included in Lot 1610.

Sunday July 10th Some of the men went fishing today, but caught only one trout and a bunch of squawfish. I climbed to the top of a bald Knoll to the South of the camp and had a fine view of the country. Away over to the West, the plateau was walled in by a large range of mountains, while a range with sky piercing peaks guarded the East. Between here and the Western range, the country is fairly flat, it’s surface broken by numerous lakes of which Green Lake (some 12 miles in length) is the largest. A dense growth of black pine masks the land. To the East, the conformation of the land is more rugged and is covered with a scattering growth of fir. I observed a bush fire in the act of clearing some squares of land on the other side of the chasm.

Monday, July 11th We finished Lot 1610. Mr. N. Humphrys came up this afternoon.

Tuesday, July 12th Starting at south west Lot 1611, we ran the south boundary of Lot 1611 before dinner. After dinner, we ran 64 chains on the south boundary of Lot 1612. H. Neville Smith came up this afternoon and had a talk with Humphrys over the situation. His men have been surveying with no regard for our surveys and have mixed up things pretty badly. They started their surveys at Green Lake on a bearing that was more than ½º wrong. They ran out six Sections on that azimuth, then moved their camp to the 12 mile post, and starting at a random location post, commenced running lines from that. We have run our lines over from Green Lake and find that location post is some 30 chains West, and 5 chains North of where it should be. It is possible that all the work done by Smith will have to be cancelled and run by us.

Wednesday July 13th Smith moved his camp this morning to the South Bonaparte River. We finished the south boundary of Lot 1612, and ran the east boundary of Lot 1614 and commenced the south boundary of Lot 1614. It was windy all day. The bush fire over by Chasm appears to be increasing in size.

Thursday July 14th We ran the south boundary of Lot 1614 and part of the west boundary. I climbed right up on top of a mountain. Humphrys went back to Vancouver. We expect to move up to the 16 mile post, Monday for a couple of weeks work.

Friday July 15th We finished Lot 1614 and traversed a 40 acre lake in Lot 1614.

Saturday July 16th We set ¼ Section posts on the south boundry of Lots 1611 and 1612. Commencing at south east Lot 1614, we ran South 40 chains to south west Lot 1615, thence ran east 25.00 chains

Sunday July 17th There was a heavy thunderstorm part of the day.

Wednesday July 27th We moved up to Chisholm’s today

Monday August 8th We moved back to Green Lake today.

Tuesday August 9th We ran the north boundary of Lot 1634 and traversed the lake.

Tuesday August 16th We moved back to 70-Mile House and then back to Vancouver. I enrolled in Toronto University in the School of Practical Science, Civil Engineering. My brother Clinton is in his third year Electrical Engineering there.


Sunday May 14th. I left Vancouver for Edmonton in the company of 23 others, including my brother, Ellis Wood. The party consisted of 7 transit-men, two cooks and fourteen axe-men. Our final destination was the Peace River Country of B.C., west of the 120th Meridian, and adjoining the Peace River Block in the neighbourhood of Fort Saint John.

Monday, May 15th We arrived in Calgary at 2:00 pm and left for Edmonton at 3:00 pm. While in Calgary I bought an autoharp as there were no musical instruments in the party. We reached Strathcona at 10:00 pm where we found the Hotel busses waiting for us. After an apparently endless journey over very rough roads we registered at the Hotel Cecil where we put up for the night.

Tuesday May 16th. I took a man and a couple of wagons and went to Strathcona across the Saskatchewan River and got the baggage. I borrowed $5.00 from Higgins, the senior transit-man. Higgins was Humphreys brother-in-law and was responsible for the finances. About 3:00 pm we pulled out of town with our baggage piled on two hayracks. On top of the luggage sat the men of the party, 12 on each wagon. We were very fortunate in that out of the whole party, only two, were totally inebriated, but we settled them amongst the baggage. We were traveling along at a comfortable rate of about three miles per hour, and had just reached the outskirts of Edmonton, when the head teamster remembered that at our first stop, it would be necessary for us to feed ourselves, and also probably eat at other stopping places along the road. So we stopped at a store and laid in a supply of provisions. This occupied the space of about an hour but we were unable to get any cups or forks. About ten miles out from town it began to rain pretty heavily and by the time we arrived at the first stopping place, 15 miles from town, we were soaked. The road also became very muddy and, of all the muds that I have seen, the mud of Alberta is the muddiest. We found the outhouse in which we were to cook our meals was in the possession of a family of Indians, who were engaged in eating their evening meal. After they had vacated the premises, our two cooks got busy and commenced getting supper while the rest of us busied ourselves getting our blankets up into a hayloft where we were to sleep. The process of feeding 26 hungry men in a small room was a somewhat different one. However, all the food was piled on a table (for cups we used tin cans) and as each man got what he wanted from the table, he moved out and the man behind took his place.

Wednesday May 17th It is still raining today, but as we understand that the boat is to leave Athabasca Landing on Saturday the 20th, we pushed on regardless of the rain. Most of us walked as it became tiresome sitting on the wagons. We made 26 miles today.

Thursday May 18th and Friday May 19th We traveled along the rough muddy road.

Saturday May 20th We arrived at Athabasca Landing this morning about 10:00 am and found that our boat was on the way and would not be leaving till Monday night, May 22nd, so we took possession of a house belonging to the Hudson’s Bay Company. Some of the sports in our party clubbed together and bought a football and we had a game this evening.

Sunday, May 21st. We went to church, some to the Anglican Church and some to the Roman Catholic Church. Higgins is an Irish Catholic.

Monday, May 22nd Our ambitious sports challenged the local talent to a game of baseball in which we were badly beaten. About 7:00 pm we went on board the good ship “Northland Sun”. About 8:00 pm, we steamed up the river and after going about 12 miles upstream, we tied up for the night, it being unsafe to navigate at night on account of the numerous shoals.

Tuesday May 23rd We reached Minor Landing in the evening. A dance was organized aboard the boat, and a good time was had by all. A lot of the passengers joined in, except two staid, elderly ladies who disapproved of the whole affair, however, the 90 men and 4 younger women whooped her up until midnight, at which time the captain closed down the show. Half of the men had to tie handkerchiefs on their arms to indicate that they were ladies. One of our boys was very efficient in calling the square dances. I, with my mouth organ and autoharp, provided the music, and for four hours I scraped and wheezed away to everyone’s satisfaction. We also had some singing and step dances and a recitation or two. Taking our party all around, I think we have a pretty good bunch of fellows on an average. Two have served as soldiers in the South African War and also in India. Three or four have “roughed it” over most of the north west of B.C. and the Yukon. Two or three are from way down east in the United States, and have been all over the Mississippi watershed. Some are from Ontario and Quebec. Most of them have had considerable experience in knocking about.

Wednesday, May 24th We had to wait all day for the teams that were to take our freight and baggage over the portage to a point on the Lesser Slave River where another boat, the “Northland Light” awaited us. Here we met sufficient teams to transport the freight over the 15 mile portage in one day. The roads were pretty bad in places. To pass away time, while we were waiting, we played football, went canoeing up the river and hunted rabbits, squirrels, bears etc. The last named quadrupeds, namely bears, were hunted exclusively by Frank Watson, a young Englishman of our party who possessed a rifle of high caliber, and a burning desire to shed the blood of some large and fierce animal. The days bag summed up to half a dozen rabbits, two or three squirrels, a grouse and some mosquitoes. I might say that Minor Landing is on the Slave River at the point of junction with the Athabasca, and that the Slave River is not navigable until about 15 miles upstream, hence the portage.
Thursday, May 25th About 11:00 am, we started out on our little walk, the 15 mile portage. Only one of the wagons had arrived, but the others were said to be on the way and we met them coming to get our freight about four miles out on the road. For dinner, some of us stopped at the house of a settler, about halfway on the road. A pretty Danish woman, who was the presiding genius of the household, showed us into her sitting room, which also served as the parlor and bedroom. Everything about the house was exquisitely neat, though extremely simple and it gave one pleasure, just to look at it. In the sitting room stood a piano and one of the party, a School of Practical Science “School” man by the name of Huff, played and we sang while awaiting dinner. About 4:00 pm we reached the end of our portage, had a light lunch and after a while had supper. Tied to the bank of the river lay the steamer Northland Light, a boat about 50 feet in length and a side wheeler. The Northland Light was about 20 feet shorter than the Northland Sun and had no sleeping accommodation on the upper deck other than the upper deck itself. After supper we built a bonfire on the riverbank and sat around telling yarns to pass away the time until the wagons should arrive with the blankets from the Landing. Since the wagon had not arrived by 11:00 pm, most of the boys got out some tents; and rolled themselves in them, while others sat around the warm boiler and some went into the stoke hole and the rest continued to sit around the campfire. I was one of those sitting around the campfire. The night was rather frosty and sitting around the campfire became rather monotonous, so about 12:30 am I got tired of alternately freezing and roasting, so I rustled around the storehouse and was lucky enough to find a feather tick and a tent. I rolled out the tent on the floor of the boat, near the boiler, and pulled the tick over me as the night air was quite frosty. About 2:00 am the wagons began arriving and most of us got up , and there was a general rush to get our blankets. We rolled in again to finish the night in comparative comfort.

Friday May 26th Most of the morning was taken up in loading the freight on board, a large portion of which consisted of our provisions, camp outfit etc. All of the space on the lower deck between the boiler and the engine, except the passageways, was filled with the freight and forward of the boiler, all of the remaining space was taken up by eight horses. So with the exception of a favoured few who were able to secure bunks in the “state rooms”, and a dozen who bunked down in the passageways, most of the passengers had to spread their blankets on the upper deck under the canopy of heaven. About 9:00 am, with nearly 70 passengers on board, the steamer cast off and proceeded up the river. The distance to Lower Slave Lake by river is 40 miles, and by road 20 miles. As the road is by no means straight, you may imagine how torturous is the course of the stream. Sometimes we would discover after travelling for an hour at the rate of three miles per hour, that we were only a short distance from where we had been at the beginning of the time. So many twists and turns made steering very difficult and we were often run into the shore in negotiating the turns. About 8:00 pm, we reached Zurich at the foot of the lake, where the Lesser Slave Lake empties into the Slave River, where we took on about 20 passengers and their baggage.. A slight accident which might have been more serious, occurred as the passengers were coming on board at Zurich. One of the passengers, on the upper deck, stepped back, and lost his footing at the top of the stairs and fell to the lower deck. He was pretty badly shaken up, but not as much as might have been expected. The ship’s dinning cabin could accommodate only ten people at a sitting, so when the first sitting was done, the bell would ring and the second would take their turn. Since there were 80 people, we found that the first group would be ready for lunch, when the eighth group would be getting up from breakfast. We had considerable difficulty getting out of the river into the lake. Lesser Slave Lake is very shallow, with numerous sandbars which makes navigation very hazardous and often, we had to back up to avoid running aground.. This boat drew about two feet of water. Reminiscent of Mark Twain, a man stands in the bow with a long pole and calls out the depth to the man at the wheel. Suddenly he called out: “Water all gone”, and we had run on a sand bar. So it was necessary to get the boat in the water and take the anchor with a cable attached back into deep water and the boat winched itself off the bar. This was the standard procedure and occurred from time to time, all through the night. I spread my blankets in the passageway of the lower deck, a space that I had pre-empted early in the afternoon, by placing my blankets thereon. About 1:00 am I was awakened by the Captain signaling the Engineer.

Saturday May 27th I found that the boat had run on a bar about the time that I wakened in the morning. The captain had the anchor taken out into the lake a distance from the boat, and by means of the steam capstan pulled bodily off the bar. About 9:00 am the boat tied up at Shaw’s Point, which was as far as the boat could go on account of the shallowness of the lake, where about a dozen wagons and half a dozen Democrats awaited us and gave the beach quite an air of activity. Then we, (Humphreys and Tupper’s party), drove in the Democrats some seven miles to Grouard on Buffalo Lake, which is sort of a continuation of Lesser Slave Lake, for five or six miles, and contains several restaurants, blacksmith shops, a bowling alley, a pool room, a Dominion Land Office, an Anglican Mission, and Roman Catholic Mission. We camped at the Hudson’s Bay Company headquarters. Some of us slept out on the grass under the twinkling stars, and the rest slept in a very ancient house provided by the Hudson’s Bay. As the house was very dirty, and full of mice and fleas, I preferred the open. Our camp lies facing the west on a sloping hillside overlooking Buffalo Lake and a wide stretching expanse of meadow-like prairie. About 9 o’clock in the evening, away over the far flung horizon, the sun sinks gently to it’s rest, and till midnight, the western sky burns with the glow of the setting sun. Grouard is a sort of ecclesiastical headquarters with both Roman Catholic and Anglican Bishops living here. Grouard is named after a Roman Catholic Bishop, who still resides here. The Roman Catholic Mission is about 200 yards from the Hudson’s Bay Company and is run by some French outfit, who flies the Tricolor flag of France over their mission all day. The Anglican mission for the Indians, is about two miles away. Some of the local people who came up with us on the boat, and whose place of residence is Grouard, arranged a dance in honour of our party which considering that we had been dancing for the last two nights, was very thoughtful.. the dance was due to commence about 8:00 pm, so about 10:00 pm I went down with two or three others to see how the dance was progressing.. Seated on benches all around the room were about forty men. The ladies present numbered three. The orchestra consisted of one Cree Indian fiddler. He took his job very seriously and was still tuning his violin when I arrived, and I was informed that he had been thus engaged for about an hour, and that in consequence, the ball had not yet been opened. Soon he seemed to be satisfied And struck up a waltz. The people jumped to their feet and began waltzing around. Suddenly one of the strings snapped and the orchestra picked up his instrument and left the room apparently in disgust. One of those present had a mouth organ and they asked me to play for them. Very reluctantly I consented and played for a couple of dances. Attracted, apparently, by the beautiful music, a half a dozen squaws in gaudy hats and costumes, came into the hall. The squaws and half breed women, are the most grotesque and ridiculous looking creatures that I have ever seen. It would be hard for me to picture the weirdness of their costumes, inexperienced as I am in the technicalities of women’s costume; but take a rather ungainly figure, with a mop of straight black hair, a face, that in the majority of cases, would, I believe, be sufficient to stop a clock. On top of the mop of hair, is placed a, I don’t know what to call it, but it is worn in the same place and evidently for the same purpose as a hat. It is worn with the centre over the forehead projecting far out over the countenance. In color it may vary from black to red and is garnished with almost everything that appeals to the personal taste of the wearer. The dress,… but I refuse to go further than, the dress, is indescribable. The rest of the costume is hung on the person with the most execrable taste. Altogether, the attempt to copy the white woman, seems to have warped their sense of artistics very badly, if they ever had any. To my mind, the native dress is in much better taste and looks muck more civilized. After a couple of dances, heretofore mentioned, the fiddler came back. I remained for a few minutes and then went home. The squaws, Indians and half breeds, (I have scarcely seen any white women since leaving Athabasca Landing. Nearly all the women have a strain of Indian blood.) know the square dances and quadrilles very well and they go through them in a very stolid and matter of course manner. One could scarcely say from their expressions whether or not they enjoyed the dance.

Sunday, May 28th We spent the entire day at Grouard. A number of fellows went to the Roman Catholic Church this morning. The flag of France is still flying over the Roman Catholic mission all day which seems a peculiar thing to do in a British country. The days in this country are very long in summer. Last night the sun didn’t set until 9:00 pm and at midnight the sunset glow still shone in the western sky.

Monday, May 29th We left Grouard about noon and traveled 20 miles on the road towards Peace River Crossing, taking our food with us and taking our own outfit.

Tuesday, May 30th We made 22 miles today. My feet are pretty sore.

Wednesday, May 31st We traveled 28 miles and arrived at Peace River Crossing about 4:00 pm. The Peace River, at the crossing, is over half a mile wide and flows at a rate of ten miles per hour. It has practically no valley except a thousand foot deep trench that it has dug for itself. On either side, the country stretches back in wide plateaus, covered for the most part with dense forests of poplar and willow, with occasional patches of prairie. The road from Grouard, was a dirt trail through the aspen, and except for the intermittent mud holes, it was not too bad, but the mud holes were no joke, and it generally took all hands, and the cook with the driver, pushing on the reins with all his might, to get the wagon through to dry ground. Some of the language used by the drivers was an education in histrionic invective. The horses seemed to expect it and responded accordingly. We first sighted the Peace River from a distance of three miles when we reached the edge of the plateau upon which we had been traveling from Grouard. We had been trudging along, some with blistered feet, and all with aching muscles after our long walk. Suddenly, as we came around a turn in the road, we beheld the mighty Peace in it’s valley, a thousand feet below. We called at the Hudson’s Bay Company store and some of the boys took advantage of the opportunity to stock up on sundries. The Hudson’s Bay Company’s Steamboat, “S.S. Peace River,” was waiting for us, and as fast as our freight wagons arrived, the freight was loaded on board.

Thursday, June 1st Having everything loaded aboard the boat, we left the Landing at 5:00 am. The accommodation on this boat was the best that we had encountered on our trip. We all managed to secure berths, which we thoroughly enjoyed after sleeping on the ground for several nights, so we were fairly comfortable. The cuisine was not of the best, but at any rate we were not fed on the eternal, ‘sow belly’, which appears to be the mainstay and chief sustenance of people from Edmonton to Lesser Slave Lake. As there was not sufficient room for all to eat at the same time, the service consisted of 1st., 2nd. and 3rd. tables. The Captain presided at the head of the 1st table and the purser occupied the foot. The manager of the Hudson’s Bay Company and the manager of Revillon Brothers, two Hudson’s Bay Company clerks and the seven transit-men also sat at the 1st table. The Captain and the Hudson’s Bay Company manager have traveled all over this northern country, from Hudson's Bay to the Rocky Mountains, and from Winnipeg to the mouth of the MacKenzie River. It was very instructive to listen to their tales of their journeys to and fro over this vast territory. One of the passengers was a young miller who was going, down the river to Fort Vermillion, several hundred miles north of the Peace River Crossing to operate a flour mill for the Hudson’s Bay Company. To while away the time most of the boys played “blackjack” a sort of card gambling game, but as there was not over two or three dollars in the crowd, it couldn’t do much damage. Sometimes I played on my autoharp and mouth organ now and then and we had step dancing, singing, etc. The boat made only about three miles per hour against the heavy current, as our progress was not swift.

Sunday June 4th We started up in the morning, but had gone only a short ways when some part of the machinery broke down; it took the captain and the engineer all day to make repairs.

Monday June 5th We reached Tupper’s cache about 3:00 pm after a peaceful uneventful journey. The boat made only about two to three miles per hour against the stiff 12 mile per hour current. About twice a day we had to tie up to the bank while the deckhands threw down a supply of cordwood from stacked piles on the bank. Every evening we tied up to the bank for the night. From Peace River Crossing to Fort Saint John, the steamer takes 5 days and makes the return trip in 12 hours. The Peace River, flowing in its bed, with steeply sloping banks rising a thousand feet to the plateaus, looks like nothing more than a huge canal dug through the bosom of the prairie. Moose and bear are plentiful along it’s banks. On one trip between Fort Saint John and Fort Vermillion, no less than 72 bears were seen. One afternoon as we were working ourselves up the river, we heard the whistle blow and rushed on deck to see the cause. About a hundred yards above us, a huge moose was breasting the current, and it seemed as though he would collide with the boat. The boat whistled several times before he stopped and turned back for the shore. The current carried him past the boat, not more than 20 feet distant, and when last we saw him, he was scrambling up the shore and into the bush ½ mile downstream.

Tuesday June 6th Around 4:00 pm, we tied up to the South bank of the Peace River, just north of the Cutbank River near where the Mud River adds it’s quota.

Wednesday June 7th Some of the party commenced building a log cache for the provisions while I took a gang and commenced cutting out a trail to the south.. By evening we reached the top of the hill.

Thursday June 8th We made about 3 miles today.

Friday June 9th We made about 3 more miles and moved the camp about 5 miles from the river. Frank Watson, an old sourdough, and a mighty good man, and I laid out the trail and kept the others cutting. Part of the way we followed an old Indian trail for two or three miles, but lost it for awhile in an extensive brule and thereafter used our own judgement running pretty nearly due south. Several times we had to alter the direction of the trail in order to pass swamps and muskegs. For about 12 miles south from Peace River, the country is thickly covered with poplar with occasional windfalls and open spaces. Then we came again on the old trail, ten miles south of the river which led us through Pouce Coupe Prairie and followed it for some twenty miles to the ranch of a Frenchman by the name of Hector Tremblay, on the Pouce Coupe River where we camped for two days. Friday June 16th and Saturday June 17th.

Monday, June 19th We finally reached Swan Lake through which the Provincial boundary runs, where we were to commence our survey. Humphreys and Tupper, who had come by a different route were waiting for us.
Tuesday June 20th Tupper took his party in the morning and departed 8 miles westward while Humphrys and the rest of us remained in this camp at Swan Lake. Higgins, who is a brother-in-law of Humphrys, is a B.C. and Dominion Land Surveyor, but afflicted with a stiff knee and to great a regard for unimportant details which makes his work slow and undependable, Tascherau is an articled pupil of Humphrys’ who is somewhat careless, but much better than Higgins. Ronald Murray who articled just before leaving Vancouver, is a green Englishman just out about 35 years and practically useless but a God fellows and yours truly. My own party consists of Ellis Wood, chainman, Roy Anderson, picket man, Ted McCreary and Frank Watson, axemen. Today we started our work. Higgins went out with Humphrys, and Tascherau went out with me. Now we divided into four parties: Humphreys, Higgins, Tascherau and mine. The 120th. Meridian runs through the centre of Swan Lake so we had to traverse the west shore. I put Ellis Wood on the rear of the chain and one of the axemen on the front. We had to do a good deal of wading along the shore and sometimes we were up to their armpits in the water, but the bottom was solid and walking was pretty good so that didn’t matter too much. We have been having rain nearly every day for the last three weeks and especially the last two or three days and the creeks are almost impassible. All the creeks are running full. We are now camped on the shore of a creek that has risen six feet in the last two days. The vegetation grows very rank here, sometimes one will come across peavine in patches four feet tall.

Wednesday June 21st Tascherau started running crosslines and I started Higgins on the same job and afterwards set 4 posts and ran ½ mile on the south boundary. We are surveying this country into townships of 36 Sections, six miles square. Humphrys and I are running the boundaries and meridians while the others are running the crosslines between meridians East and West. I ran the S. boundary of Section 3, Township 26.

Thursday June 22nd Tascherau and I went out to the south west corner of Section 3 in the afternoon as it rained all morning, but were unable to do much as it began to rain again. Tascherau sprained his ankle.

Friday June 23rd Tascherau remained in camp all day with a sprained ankle. We ran the south boundry of Section 24 Township 26.

Saturday June 24th We run the south boundry of Section 5, Township 26.

Monday June 26th We ran the south boundry of Section 6, Township 26 and closed on Tupper’s corner at 400.34 and point 31 south.

Tuesday June 27th Starting at the south west corner of Section 4, Township 26, we ran 1 mile north along the west boundary of Section 4.

Wednesday June 28th We ran two miles north along the west boundry of Sections 9 and 16.

Thursday June 29th We started at the north east corner of Township 26 on the provincial boundary, Longitude 120º W. and ran south 52 chains to the shore of Swan Lake and then traversed along it’s shore 111 chains.

Saturday July 1st We continued the traverse of Swan Lake 181 chains.

Sunday July 2nd We continued the traverse of Swan Lake 61 chains to Tupper Creek, but were unable to get across Tupper Creek and returned to camp about 2:00 pm.

Monday July 3rd We moved camp about three miles west. We took a boat out with us and crossed Tupper’s Creek and ran some 23 chains to the Provincial Boundary. We had lunch at the old camp site and went over to the new camp and spent the remainder of the afternoon putting up tents and getting settled in.

Tuesday July 4th We ran the west boundary of Section 5 and ½ of the west boundry of Section 8.

Wednesday July 5th We completed the west boundary of Section 8, ran the west boundry of Section 17 and ½ of the west boundary, of Section 20 ( 2 miles).

Thursday July 6th We completed the west boundary of Section 20, came .63 chains east of Humphrys line running south from Graham’s line and moved his post to my line and sent all the men home but Ellis Wood. Then we had lunch and in the afternoon we went north and offset 3 post and measured 2 angles on the west boundary on Township 26.

Friday July 7th All of the work on Township 26 is completed. It rained hard all day.

Saturday July 8th It threatened to rain all day. The pack train came in and took some of our stuff down to Swan Lake and is coming back to move camp tomorrow morning. It is raining very hard tonight. For this season of the year, this is the rainiest country that I have ever seen. With scarcely an exception every day has been cloudy and showery and scarcely a morning have we been able to go through the bush without getting thoroughly soaked. No wonder the vetch and grasses grow so luxuriantly.

Sunday, July 9th We moved the camp to Swan Lake. I note that we worked every day and there was no nonsense about 40 hour weeks, or Sunday layoffs.

Monday, July 10th I took my party to the north end of Swan Lake on the Provincial Boundary. We had to get a boat to cross Bear Creek on account of the high water. I sent two of the boys to set a hub on the line at the south end of the lake about two miles away. We found the hub, which I had previously set on the north end, to be three feet under water. However, the rain was falling and as it was not possible to see the men at the south end of the lake, so I called them in, which was pretty good vocalizing over two miles, and we went back to camp.

Tuesday July 11th We moved camp to a point about 4 miles west of the boundary and 14 miles South of the “Peace River Block”. We went over the trail to the new camping ground and thence to the corner of townships 24, 26, 27 and 29. Higgins came with me to the corner and then went a mile south and began running a line east.

Wednesday July 12th I measured the angles in the township corner and found everything checked all right, but the west boundary of Township 27, the one we are working on at present, was two minutes out. I checked the chainage on Tupper’s two miles of the west boundary of Township 27 and checked Higgin’s and Tascherau’s angles and ran half the west boundary of Section 19. Higgin’s and Tascherau didn’t find the line until nearly noon. Checked the chainage on Tupper’s two miles of the W. boundary of Township 27 and checked Higgin’s and Tascherau’s angles and ran half the W. boundary of Section 19. Higgin’s and Tascherau didn’t find the line until nearly noon.

Thursday July 13th We finished the west boundary of Section 19 and ran ¾ of the west boundary of Section 18.

Friday July 14th We finished Section 18 and ran the west boundary of Section 7. We came back and ran ¾ of the south boundary of Section 18.

Saturday July 15th We went to the north boundary of Township 27 and ran the south west boundary of Section 32 and ½ the west boundary of Section 29.

Sunday July 16th It rained a little in the evening.

Thursday August 10th Today our camp moved to Swan Lake. I offset a couple of Tascherau’s posts.

Friday August 11th I left camp with my own party of five and Higgins and his chainman also two packers and seven or eight packhorses with a weeks outfit for a point 12 miles west of the Provincial boundary on the south boundary of the “Peace River Block”. Got as far as Graham’s camp by evening, a distance of 15 miles. After supper I went out and looked for a way to get to our starting point, 3 miles distant to the north and 2 miles to the west and decided to follow the survey line.

Saturday August 12th I set the boys to cutting trail and we ran the 3 miles north to the base line by noon and reached our objective point about 4:00 pm. It rained when we pitched camp.

Sunday August 13th We ran a ½ mile west, starting at the north west corner of Section 31, Township 23 on the boundary of the “Peace River Block”. We were compelled to stop work in the afternoon on account of the heavy rain. The rain stopped about 4:00 pm. and we cut trail for an hour.

Monday August 14th We ran 1 mile on the west ½ of the north boundary of Section 36, Township 21 and ½ of the north boundary of Section 35. It rained hard for about an hour after dinner. The country through which we are running is covered with a dense growth of poplar, jackpine, willow, birch, alder and spruce and it took a lot of chopping to run a line through it. The soil is excellent in most parts.

Tuesday, August 15th We cut trail along base line to the new camp in the morning and finished the north boundary of Section 35. I took an observation on Polaris for Azimuth. After supper as Higgins and I were going down the base line we saw a bear on the line. We ran back and warned the camp. Higgins got out his Colt automatic, Big Bill McDonald produced his revolver, Ellis Wood and O’Dell brought up the rear with 22 gauge rifles and Frank Watson, a big game hunter came along with his 303 rifle. As for me, I set up the transit and sighted on the intruder. It was a half-grown black bear and not a bit nervous. It probably didn’t realize the serious nature of it’s predicament. Frank Watson fired 5 shots at the animal, every one a complete miss, which didn’t do anything to enhance his reputation as a big game hunter. The bear kept on it’s way quite unconcerned, although finally rendered suspicious by the noise, he disappeared into the woods. So we had no bear steaks for breakfast.

Wednesday August 16th We ran the north boundary of Section 34. We offset the line at the north east corner of Section 34, 18.7 links west and corrected the bearing 04’ to agree with the Dominion Base Line.

Thursday August 17th We moved our camp 2 miles west and ran the north boundary of Section 33. We got over the edge of the plateau and began to drop down to the Cutbank River.

Friday August 18th We ran the north boundary of Section 32 and saw a bear on the line.

Saturday August 19th We moved the camp to the river, ran the north boundary of Section 31 and crossed the river about 50 chains west on the north boundary of Section 36 Township 19. Humphrys arrived at the Cutbank today and Higgins took the plans over to his camp.

Sunday August 20th It rained all morning. Just as we were sitting down to dinner, Higgins came over to tell me that Humphrys was waiting to continue on the other side of the river. I gave Higgins the distance of the hub and went over after dinner. We moved camp over to Humphry’s camp. I set two meander posts on the banks of the river and measured the distance from the Dominion Base Line to my line. Higgins and I went to the south boundary of the block to take an observation on Polaris for Azimuth, but the day was too cloudy. We got back to camp about midnight.

Monday August 21st It rained all morning. In the afternoon I ran 60 chains on the north boundary of Township 19. It rained very hard for an hour or two in the afternoon. I took an observation on Polaris.

Tuesday August 22nd I crossed the river and ran the east boundary of Section 36, Township 19.

Wednesday August 23rd I ran the east boundary, Section 25, Township 19.

Thursday August 24th Humphrys left for Peace River Crossing. I moved my party down, south near the east boundary of Township 19 and ran ½ of the east boundary of Section 24, Township 19.

Friday August 25th I finished The east boundary of Section 24, and ran ½ of the east boundary of Section 13 and crossed the river.

Saturday August 26th I finished Section 13, Township 19 and ran the east boundary of Section 12, Township 13.

Sunday August 27th I ran the east boundary of Section 17, Township 19 and finished the east boundary of Township 19 in the morning. I sent Powell back ¾ of a mile to light the fire for lunch, while we marked the bearing trees. On our way back we came upon Powell sitting on a log endeavoring to bandage up a gash in his knee. It seems that he had tripped over some windfalls and fallen on his axe. After dinner he managed to walk for a mile and a half, but then gave out completely. Ellis Wood, as “first aid man,” rigged up a sort of stretcher out of the lunch bag and a couple of poles, and he and Bancroft carried Powell for about a hundred yards, but found it very fatiguing on account of the unevenness of the terrain, and had to put him down. I perceived that scheme was a failure, so rather than leave him to perish in the wilderness, I handed my coat & transit to one of the men and took Powell on by back and carried him about a mile. Then for the remaining distance we took turns and finally reached our camp about 5:30 pm. Our camp outfit had been moved back to the main camp this morning, leaving one of the men, Ted McCreary with Powell. The rest of us stuck out for the main camp, intending to send back horses to bring them in. We reached the main camp about 7:30 pm. and, as it happened, there was a man in camp with a horse who was just leaving. The pack train had gone north that afternoon. A couple of the men took the horse and went back for Powell and got back about 9:00 pm. When we pulled into camp we found that the cook Brassard had pulled out with the pack train as he wanted to go and locate his pre-emption and Andrews had to cook in Brassard’s place. So at one swoop my party was reduced from 6 to 4 men. The other parties had 5 men each.

Monday August 28th I corrected the south boundry of the Block by re running 30 chains on the true line and offsetting from the old line, 8 links north. I finished N. Boundry of Section 34, Township 19. Ted McCreary hit himself on the eye with a chip do Ellis Wood had to go ahead and set the hubs and then come back and chain so it made slow work. Windfalls were pretty bad. I cut up one pair of boots to mend another.

Friday September 1st I went over to the north east Section 31, Township 21 and ran a ½ mile south. Our camp moved down to new location in Section 18, Township 21. It is rather prettily situated. An old bend of the river has been dammed at each end by beavers. The slough is full of muskrats and beaver. Particularly interesting is a family of albino muskrats. The boys (Ellis Wood) shot one the other night and its fur was absolutely white. The beavers have long skid-roads down the hillsides to the water. They cut down the trees near the path and drag or slide them down these paths into the water. I believe they also use these paths as a means of rapid transit when going home from work.

Sunday September 3rd Higgins and I went up to Tupper’s camp for dinner about 5 miles south.

Monday September 4th I ran the east boundary of Section 19 and the east boundary of Section 19 Township 21. We crossed the river again.

Tuesday September 5th. It froze hard last night. We are having splendid fall weather, There has been no rain for the last three weeks. The river is falling very rapidly. I expect to traverse 25 to 30 miles of this river (Kiskatinaw) starting at the south boundary of Township 22 and rafting down to the Dominion Reserve, so I will have to get to work on this as soon as possible. I ran the east boundary of Section 7 Township 21.

Wednesday Sept 6th There was a hard frost last night. I ran the east boundary of Section 6 Township 21 and the north boundary of Section 6 Township 21.

Thursday Sept 7th I moved my party down to Tupper’s camp.

Friday September 8th Today I moved my party down to the south boundary of Township 22 on the Cutbank River.

Saturday September 9th We commenced building rafts and traversed a mile down the river in the afternoon. I found that one raft was not sufficient to move our outfit.

Sunday September 10th We built three rafts in the morning. One for myself, and two for the camp outfit and cook. Ellis Wood who is rodding for me already had a raft. We traversed two and a half miles. I found that the extra crew needed most of their tents so I ditched them when we passed Tupper’s camp, and carried on with only Ellis Wood, the cook, and. myself.

Monday September 11th We continued the traverse and ran 4 miles. I went up and saw Tupper after supper.

Tuesday September 12th I traversed three miles and set 12 meander posts.

Wednesday September 13th It rained all morning. I ran two miles of traverse in the afternoon.

Thursday September 14th It is a fine day today and we traversed 6 miles. We camped opposite Higgins’ camp.

Friday September 15th It rained all morning. We ran 2 ½ miles in the afternoon and camped on the south boundary of the block. We have run 21 ¼ miles to date.

Saturday September 16th It rained all day today.

Sunday September 17th We ran 4 ¾ miles and camped on the south boundary of the block.

Monday September 18th. We ran 2 ¼ miles and completed the traverse of the river by tying to the Dominion Reserve;. I sent Ted and Jack to the main camp for grub.

Tuesday September 19th. We ran the centre lines of Sections 31 and 32, Township 21 and set the centre posts. Goodwin arrived with his pack train to move us out tomorrow. We have run a total of 28 ¼ miles.

Wednesday September 20th We moved back to the main camp. It snowed all day.

Saturday September 23rd We ran the centre line of Sections 2 and 3. Our camp moved over to Sunset Creek which is probably our last camp. We ran Section 9, Township 19. It snowed all morning.

Sunday September 24th We ran the south boundary Section.10, Township 19. We found it heavy going. This leaves 39 miles to run before we are through. The food supply is rapidly diminishing. Milk, sugar, butter, and fresh meat are almost forgotten luxuries. Our daily bill of fare consists of desiccated potatoes, porridge, beans and hotcakes in the morning and potatoes and beans at night. Perhaps we may have to resort to root and tender shoots. Cannibalism should be the last desperate resource. In that case it would be a case of the survival of the fittest.

Monday September 25th We worked to ¾ of a mile of the north boundary of Township 19. It took us until noon to get there. We had to leave for camp at 3:00 pm so we only did the west boundary of Section 32 and 20 chains of west boundary of Section.29.

Tuesday September 26th We finished the west boundary Section 29. There are lots of bad windfalls.

Wednesday September 27th. We ran the west boundary Section 20 and ½ of the east boundary Section 18.

Thursday September 28th We finished the east boundary of Section 18, the east boundary of Section 7 and ½ of the east boundary of Section 6.

Friday September 29th. We finished the east boundary of Section 6 and tied on to Tupper’s by 1 link. We went a mile west and ran the west boundary of Section 6.

Saturday September 30th We ran the west boundary of Section 7 and ½ of the west boundary of Section 18.

Sunday October 1st We finished the west boundary of Section 18 and would have finished the west boundary of Section 19. I started from the top of a hill and set a hub on the other side of the valley. I ran a mile and seven chains before dinner. At 2:30 pm, when we were only 30 chains from the end it came on to rain and snow very heavily. We struggled on as well as we could but were finally obliged to cease work a quarter of a mile from the end. We worked along until 4:00 pm, making some 10 chains, and then had to quit before completing the line as we saw that it would be impossible to finish it that night.. Besides we had 4 ¼ miles to go across country through a thick snow storm to get back to camp. By the time we reached camp, it was about 5:30 pm and we were drenched to the skin and thoroughly chilled. I don’t know that I have ever before been so thoroughly chilled as I was that night. My teeth simply rattled like castanets for an hour after reaching camp. I expect camp to move tomorrow to one of our old camps on the trail to Peace River Crossing about 10 miles walk. I will take my party and finish my line in the morning and go across to the camp in the afternoon.

Monday October 2nd. Mr. Tupper’s party was finishing the north west part of the township. The packers decided to camp 6 miles north of our old camp. Tupper’s head transitman, Silcox, was in our camp having lost his way the previous day in the storm. I arranged with him, this morning, to finish my line for me, as our camp was to move the next day, some 16 miles on the way out. As I had left the transit on line the previous night and had a post to offset, it was necessary to go out that way. I took Ellis Wood with me and got out to the line at noon. After I offset the post we had lunch. About 1:00 pm we started across country, over a terrific mile of windfalls, the worst that I have ever seen. The trees had apparently been blown down from every quarter and were piled up in the greatest confusion. To make matters worse, the logs were extremely slippery from the rain and snow of the previous night. Also a thick tangle of vine like willow was growing up between the logs. Our progress over this was one continuous struggle. Every foot had to be fought for and we were over two hours in making the first mile, 1 ½ hours to make the second. We reached Silcox’s camp at 5:00 pm and got two or three biscuits apiece from the cook., and reached our camp at 5:20 pm. We are leaving a couple of men to do some mounding and from there we got some bread and tea. It was quite dark by the time we reached the packers camp, about 7:00 pm. It was with elation that we perceived the glow of the camp fire ahead of us. One of my boots had gone to pieces soon after leaving the old camp site. The sole of one boot came loose and Ellis Wood didn’t help, by deliberately stepping on the gaping sole, causing it to tear lose from the shoe. Anyway, it seemed to cheer him up, so perhaps it was not entirely a loss and I finished the trip in my socks. The soles of my feet were so callused that it didn’t matter much but it didn’t do the socks any good. We found that the pack train had beaten us into camp by only an hour.

Tuesday October 3rd Our camp moved this morning about four miles to the other side of the Cutbank, to the wagon road. Tomorrow we expect to move the camp to Trembley’s Ranch at Pouce Coupe, about 15 miles distance. The outfit will probably remain there for a day or two while a pack train brings Silcox and his group out. I am thinking seriously of going out by the Edson trail, instead of going out via Peace River, Grouard and Athabasca Landing. It is over 500 miles by this route and only 350 miles by the Edson trail. One of the men who came over the trail last spring, figures on doing it in 12 days. The wagon arrived from Tremblay’s this evening with a supply of food including these almost forgotten luxuries, butter, milk, sugar, and syrup. We figure that I have run 135 miles, Tascherau 120 miles, Tupper 98 miles, and Higgins 70 miles this season.

Wednesday October 4th Our camp moved 15 miles to down to Trembley’s. Some of us went on ahead and had dinner at the ranch.

Thursday October 5th. One of our axemen, Dan Smith by name, was going out by the Edson trail so I decided to go out with him. He had come in that way in the spring and figured that we would save at least two weeks by going out that way, instead of going with the main party around by Peace River and Lesser Slave Lake. Dan Smith and I rolled our blankets and took two loaves of bread, two pounds of butter, 3 pounds of sugar, 1 pound of tea, 3 pounds of salt pork, 1 pound of chocolate, two, 2 pound cans of syrup, 1 billy, cutlery, tin plates and cups. Dan got a cheque from Higgins’ Humphrys brother-in-law, who had charge of the camp after Humphrys left, for his time and I got $300.00. I had him make out two cheques, one for $25.00, and one for $275.00. About 10:00 am we shouldered our few provisions, and each took one blanket and set out cross country for Edson. Made about 22 miles that day. The others are going out the way we came in. We camped a few hundred yards east of B.C. Boundary.

Friday October 6th We started out bright and early before sunrise and traveled all day. We saw absolutely no living soul for the first 30 miles. About 5:00 pm we came upon a settler who had just arrived in the country and was just moving into his place. He and his son were taking up two adjoining pre-emptions or homesteads. From him we obtained the information that the next place, Johnson’s was 7 miles farther. Well Dan didn’t think it was too far so we determined to make Johnson’s before we camped. It became quite dark about 6:30 pm, although the moon was shining fitfully through the clouds. Far away in the distance we saw a light shining and we quickened our lagging footsteps. It must be admitted that we were becoming pretty tired by this time. Sometimes we splashed through a sea of mud or for variety, we stubbed our toes against a snag. Along about 8:00 pm we reached our goal, after falling into a creek about 3 ½ feet deep and full of sticks. Here we bought 8 biscuits for 20¢, which we took to an outhouse, where we were given permission to sleep, and had supper.

Saturday October 7th We rose about 8:30 am and had a hearty breakfast at the house and started out at 9:00 am. Our next objective was Beaver Lodge on Saskatoon Lake, some 20 miles distant. We started out and walked all morning, but soon became bewildered by the multiplicity of trails and about 1:30 pm, we landed at the house of a Mr. Shirk, about 10 miles from Beaver Lodge, and were invited in for dinner. There is no government or main road in this part of the country. When a settler wants to go anywhere he simply drives across country in the general direction of his objective. Mr. Shirk possesses a farm of 1000 acres, some 5 horses, and cattle, a wife, 2 sons and two skookum daughters. They plough and cultivate and do as much work as any two strong men. That evening we reached Beaver Lodge about 5:30 pm and heard that there had been a Dominion election. We bought some provisions at Revillon Brothers Store and had supper at the restaurant. The restaurant which occupies the rear of the main business block of Beaver Lodge, which is a log shack, about 15’ x 50’. 15 feet in the centre of this building is a branch of the Canadian Bank of Commerce and in the front is the Post Office. Several frame buildings are in course of construction and likely in a few years there will be quite a town here. At present the rows of subdivision stakes are the most notable feature of the place. After supper we moved about a mile out of town and spread our blankets on the bosom of Mother Earth under the starlit canopy of heaven.

Sunday, October 8th At daybreak we started for Grande Prairie City. We got off the main trail and landed about noon at Flying Shot and about 2 miles from Grand Prairie. Grand Prairie is about 15 miles from Beaver Lodge on Saskatoon Lake and contains a few more buildings, including two churches, a Roman Catholic and a Protestant. A bunch of Indian girls passed us on their way to church. It made me feel pretty tired to have them pass us so easily, but my feet were aching, and Dan was pretty near all in. We managed to reach the restaurant and although it was 2:30 pm, the lady who kept the restaurant very obligingly set to work and got up a meal for us. We were unable to buy any bread on account of the scarcity of flour. The stores here seemed to be pretty well out of supplies.. I managed to buy a small loaf of bread from a settler for 25¢. We left town about 4:00 pm and camped on the creek 6 miles out. We hope to make Smokey River by tomorrow noon, a distance of some 30 miles.

Monday, October 9th We rose before sunrise and hit the trail just as the sun was rising above the horizon. We reached the Big Smoky late in the afternoon, expecting to get something to eat from the ferryman, but were out of luck as he had barely enough for himself. He told us of two places between the river and Sturgeon Lake where we might be able to obtain food. We camped about three miles from the Smokey Tuesday October 10th We were up at 5:00 am and hit the trail about sunrise. We made the first man’s place by noon after wading through the wettest piece of road that I have ever seen. I simply rolled my pants above my knees and waded. The road runs through 20 miles of slough, Well we came upon the house of this settler, expecting to secure a good square meal, but the man was not in sight and there appeared to be a scarcity of provisions in the shack, so we made some chocolate which was all the food we had. While we were partaking of this humble repast, the owner of the shack came along, and at first he was unwilling to part with any of his precious provisions. Finally, taking pity on our destitute condition, he consented to sell us a couple of bannocks and a couple of pounds of flour, which eased our situation very greatly. He told us that he had once gone five days without food. Ten miles farther we came to another settler, but he was a most inhospitable sort of a man so we passed by on the other side and camped two miles farther on, about 15 miles north of Sturgeon Lake. We reached Sturgeon Lake at 1:00 pm and got dinner there. Sturgeon Lake is quite an important post of the Hudson’s Bay Company and also of the ubiquitous Revillon Brothers. There is an Indian Reserve at Sturgeon Lake and the Indians, although they do very little farming, appear to be quite prosperous, although it is difficult to see what they do for a living. Probably fur trapping is good. We tried hard to buy some moccasins here but none were to be had. Apparently the spring is the best time to buy moccasins. We replenished our stock of provisions and camped 10 miles south.

Wednesday October 11th We made the lake about noon and had dinner at a boarding house kept by a Donna Carr. She and her husband and three or four small children had come up from Edson on the way to Grand Prairie. It had taken them three weeks to come from Edson at the rate of about 7 miles a day. They were within three miles of Sturgeon Lake when one of their oxen lay down and died. An Indian with a team of horses happened to come along about that time. They tried to explain their situation to him, but he knew no English, however when he looked under the wagon top and saw the small children, he simply hitched on his horse, and took the wagon to the lake. Her husband had gone on foot to Grand Prairie to file on his homestead. The Hudson’s Bay Company and Revillon Brothers each have a store at the lake. The Hudson’s Bay Store is the much better stocked of the two. Some Roman Catholic outfit has a mission here, but the priests are the dirtiest looking men that I have seen for a long time. After buying some provisions including a loaf of bread at 35¢. We traveled some 10 miles and camped.

Thursday October 12th We camped about 2 miles north of the House River. During the day we met a party of four old men with a democrat and team headed for the prairie.

Friday October 13th We crossed the House River early in the morning and called at the tent of a settler there, but he was not at home, so we were unable to get any food. During the afternoon we met some settlers who although they were naturally reluctant to part with any of their provisions, finally sold us 3 loaves of bread. At this time we had only 2 ounces of chocolate and a small can of jam. It rained all night.

Saturday October 14th It rained all morning, but as we couldn’t afford to waste any time in that country without provisions, we plodded, waded, and slipped along through the mud all day and barely succeeded in reaching the Toney River before dark. Our bread was now exhausted and we made supper on an ounce of chocolate.

Sunday October 15th Ferried across the Little Smoky about noon and the ferryman provided us with a meal of moose meat and biscuits for which we paid the outrageous price of .50¢ apiece, and we were glad for the opportunity. We met two men, a C.P.R. engine driver and a brakeman, and the wagon that brought them up, who had just arrived at the river with a trapping outfit. (They intend to trap this winter). The teamster with his empty wagon, was leaving for Edson right after dinner and on his invitation we gladly threw our packs in the wagon. Starting at 1:30 pm we walked until 7:30 pm. It was quite dark when we stopped. The teamster had been trying to reach a hay slough before camping , but gave up the attempt on account of the difficulty of traveling after dark. It was obvious that it was dangerous for horses to travel this road and extreme care was made necessary. Although the road south of the Little Smoky is infinitely better than that part to the North, still there were mud holes in which the light wagon sank to the axles. Branches had been thrown into the mud holes and probably improved matters for a short while, but soon were broken into sharp pointed stakes on which a horse was likely to stumble, or become impaled with disastrous results. It is estimated by some that about 100 horses and oxen have been killed or have perished from lack of food on this road since last spring. We camped about 15 miles south of the Little Smokey River and 10 miles north of the Baptiste River.

Monday October 16th We started an hour before sunrise leaving the teamster asleep and ferried across the Baptiste River about 8:00 am. We tried to get breakfast here but it was the same old story. The ferryman was almost out of food himself. We ferried across the Athabaska River about 10:30 am. A good meal was set before us at the Athabasca by the ferryman. The Athabasca is about 50 miles from Edson; and when we expressed our intention of reaching that metropolis the next day in time to catch the 3:45 pm train to Edmonton, our host shook his head sadly saying “You cannot do it.” Our next objective was, “The Scotchman’s”, a stopping place run by a couple of Swedes, which we made about 6:00 pm, just in time for supper. After a hearty meal we picked up our blankets, although a gale was blowing and it looked like snow, and made our way as well as we could, a couple of miles down the road, avoiding mud holes when we saw them and climbing out when we did not. Coming to a dry piece of road, we rolled out our blankets and stretched out for our last sleep of the season under the star spangled canopy of heaven. I want especially to reach Edson before the bank closes in order to cash my small check for $25.00.

Tuesday October 17th. Morning dawned dark and gloomy and threatening snow. We didn’t waken until nearly 7:00 am. We were 33 miles from Edson and we didn’t have any time to waste. In order to reach Edson in time, it would be necessary for us to travel at the rate of 4 miles per hour for 8 hours. As I was determined to make Edson before the bank closed, I threw away my blankets and dunnage and started off, leaving Dan to follow. About a mile down the road I came across a road gang at work and told the foreman that I intended to catch the 3:34 pm train. He seemed to think I would never make it. My moccasins gave out on me after the first 5 miles and I put on my shoes, which I had carried in case of emergency. The sole of one shoe was nearly off, but I managed to tie it as well as I could, so that it would last me through. I ran down all the hills. I reached the 20 mile stopping place at 9:50 am and had a little breakfast. I knew that I could make the City at least before 3:00 pm. .On my way as I was trotting down a hill I passed an abandoned road camp. Under a bunk I noticed a jam can and on investigation, I found it to be half full of gooseberry jam with a wooden spoon therein. Immediately I sat down, taking time out, and cleaned up the can. About 11:00 am came to a sign board giving the information that the Frenchman’s stopping place on 20 Mile Creek was 5 miles north. So I figured I had still 15 miles to go. I reached Edson at 1:50 pm. Immediately on entering the town, I made a beeline for the Bank and the cashier, where I presented my cheques for payment. I hadn’t a single cent in my pocket, and I was in debt $10.00 to Dan for expenses on the trip. After asking a few questions of the tough looking character before him, he reluctantly cashed the $25.00 cheque, and I felt like a millionaire.. Then I headed for a clothing store, discarded my rags and donned new apparel. One of my boots was so far gone that I had to tie the sole to the upper part of the boot. The next stop was a barber shop where I got a haircut and shave and then to the train station about 3:30 pm where, greatly to my surprise, just as I came out on the platform, after buying my ticket, there was my friend Dan with his bundle on his back, coming down the platform. By now, the train was almost due to leave, so we boarded the passenger coach at the station, and settled down in the soft cushioned seats. We really relaxed in solid comfort, and with a sigh of relief, as we realized that our hard grind of the last two weeks was finally over, and that we had at last reached our goal. According to all the information we have been able to gather, concerning the length of the road, and judging also by the length of time occupied by us on the road, I Don’t think that I am far wrong in saying that from noon of October 5th at Trembley’s to 2:00 pm October 17th, we covered not less than 350 miles, divided as follows, beginning at Trembley’s, to Johnson’s 60 miles, to Saskatoon 80 miles, to Grande Prairie 100 miles, to big Smokey 130 miles, to Sturgeon Lake 175 miles, to House River 220 miles, to Toney River 262 miles, to Little Smokey River 274 miles, to Baptiste 294 miles, to Athabasca 300 miles, and to Edson 350 miles. I have never walked so hard in all my life as I did on that trail. Very often the mud was so bad that one had to roll his trousers up to the knees and simply wade. We generally walked from sunrise to sunset. We met quite a number of settlers going into the country, and I felt extremely sorry for them, knowing the hardships that they would meet before they reached their goal. It was surprising the number of old men, about the age of 70, that were going into the new country. The settlers appeared to be mostly Americans who had sold out in the States and were journeying to the “Promised Land.” The parties generally consisted of the patriarch and his wife, his sons and daughters and their wives and husbands. One old man of 73 got as far as the Little Smokey when he was overcome by the hardships and fell ill and had to be taken back to Edson. One day we met a party of four old men, the youngest could not have been younger than 65, all headed for Grande Prairie. The poor old fellow looked pretty tired. A man and his 3 small children got as far as Sturgeon Lake when one of his oxen died. The man had to leave his family at the lake and go on foot the rest of the way to locate his homestead. Along the road were loaded wagons abandoned until the snow came. Two or three democrats were laid up with broken axles or springs. On a tree by the roadside, we noticed a set of harness, and nearby stretched in death, lay the faithful horse having died in the harness. Undoubtedly in the present condition of the “Edson Trail,” “Shanks Pony” is the most reliable and swiftest means of locomotion. One thing that I noticed was the general cheerfulness that seemed to prevail among the travelers. When a man’s wagon got stuck in a hole, he generally took it as a matter of course and didn’t seem to get excited or loose his temper. The average rate of travel for an ox team with a loaded wagon appeared to be 7 miles a day. We had no doubt as the superiority of the Iron Horse over Shanks Mare. As soon as the train pulled out, we headed for the dinning car and ordered everything on the menu. It was sure nice going down, but unfortunately it didn’t stay down. When we arrived in Edmonton about 10:30 pm, We first found a place under a roof for the night and then headed for a lunch counter where we devoted some time and attention to our really formidable appetites.

Wednesday October 18th I went down to the Northern Crown Bank on which my check was drawn, but they absolutely would not cash the cheque. The cheque was signed by Higgins, and they suggested that I mail the cheque to the Northern Crown Bank of Vancouver to get them to certify to Higgin’s signature and then get someone in Edmonton to identify me. As I was anxious to leave Edmonton the same night, you can imagine that I was somewhat annoyed at this unexpected difficulty. Fortunately I was acquainted with the manager of the Hudson’s Bay Company for Edmonton and the Northwest Territories, a Mr. Fugle, and he sent one of his cheques down to the Bank of Montreal to identify me and he also certified to the genuineness of the cheque, so I was able to cash my $275.00 cheque and I boarded the train for Toronto. He also signed a student’s Railway Certificate for me, so that I came off much better than I might otherwise have done.

Monday October 23rd Today I arrived in Toronto. I found accommodation at 41 Sussex Avenue for the winter. The chancellor of the School of Practical Science. enrolled me in spite of my late arrival and wished me luck. I had to write a letter of explanation to the Secretary of the Faculty concerning my lateness before I could get my registration card. During the last week I have had to work pretty hard to catch up with the work, I am extremely sorry that I had not time for a visit home this fall, but I may have time in the spring.

Wednesday December 20th Other than some small change, all the money that I had was $1.03 in the bank. I was practically certain that the money that my Father sent me, would reach me by Sunday December 21st, but I tried to raise a little of cash in case it did not arrive in time. I took my brother Clinton’s Kodak down to a pawnbroker and I said I wanted to borrow some money on it. The pawnbroker, who by the way, was a Jew, opened it up and glanced over it in a disparaging manner. “How much you want?” he asked. “Oh about $15.00” I replied, whereupon he handed it back and informed me that he could not lend me more than $4.00 on it. So I put it back in my pocket and went home resolved to have no more dealings with the Jews. I sent the word to my cousins that I would be out to Warsaw on Monday December 22nd.

Thursday December 21st I was greatly relieved when my Father’s cheque for $25.00 reached me today. My finances had reached the lowest point possible without going into debt. To make matters worse, my cousins at Warsaw were expecting me out there today, and I had all my Christmas shopping to do. I spent all afternoon doing my Christmas shopping which was not very extensive but took a lot of time.

Friday December 22nd I left Toronto on this morning about 10:00 am. The train was nearly an hour late in leaving on account of the crowds of people leaving for Christmas. I caught the stage at Lakefield about 3:00 pm and arrived at Hamblin’s about 5:30 pm. Jen was busy baking for Christmas and for a wedding that was to take place on the Thursday after Christmas. The cats had become quite tame since I was last there. Clinton, noticing that the cats were very forward, had undertaken to train them with the result that before we left, it was only necessary to glance belligerently in the general direction of a cat, to cause it to hastily retire beneath the stove.

Saturday December 23rd I took my books with me, as we had three examinations after the vacation, so I studied all day Saturday.

Sunday December 24th In the afternoon, Ed Hamblin and I drove down to Warsaw and stopped at Dave Payne’s for supper. Effie gave the Christmas dinner this year.

Monday December 25th This morning we drove down to Dave’s picking up “Uncle” Nathan Payne on the way down. I took my grip with me as Jen expected to be away for a couple of days helping with the preparations for the wedding and I thought I'd have a better time at Effie’s than keeping house for a couple of men and a kid. Well, we had a most enjoyable Christmas. Everybody had a good time. Yours truly was the victim chosen to represent the venerable old gentleman with the long white whiskers and the reindeer, who appears at Christmastide. I had to go upstairs and pretend to come in through the window with the load of presents, jingling sleigh bells and making considerable noise generally. Well I did that part all right and distributed the presents. Then I said goodbye to the children and toddled off upstairs again. Then to fool two or three young skeptics that didn’t believe in Santa Claus and kept their eyes glued on the stair doorway waiting for me to come down. I opened the window and letting myself out, hung by my fingers. I looked down below me and the ground was covered with ice, and I didn’t particularly relish the idea of a sprained ankle, so I hung for a while and deliberated. Someone came upstairs looking for me, and I could have had him open the window for me, but I decided not. Just then I caught sight of a projecting board and thereby let myself to the ground after considerable maneuvering and walked through the door, greatly to the discomfit of the aforesaid “doubting Thomas’. I told Jen that evening that I was going home on the 3rd of January, but she must have misunderstood me for I found out later that she was counting on my remaining till the 9th and so she let me stay at Effie’s until the 2nd. When she found out then that I was actually going home on the 3rd, she hardly knew what to do. She had said that she would come and get me, so I just remained at Effie’s and had a good visit. Last year we hadn’t time to get acquainted. (It generally takes about a week to thaw out my “beastly” reserve.) Do you know that Effie made such a fuss over me, after I had got to feel at home, and had begun to help with the dishes, and hold the baby, that I was almost spoiled. It is a most unusual thing for anyone to pet me and make a fuss over me, (haw, haw) and at first I was suspicious and thought she was “kidding” me, but she wasn’t and after a while I got so that I rather liked being petted. In fact I became rather fond of my little cousin. I studied most of the time, although Effie was sure the noise of the youngsters was bothering me, but I told her I could study best when the kids were noisiest as I had raised a whole family of noisy young brats, particularly my sister Winnie, and brothers Ellis and Douglas and the noise made me feel at home. One day Dave was away to a school meeting, and one of the men cutting wood for him met with an accident while chopping. His axe caught in a branch or something and glanced into his foot. Fortunately it didn’t cut an artery and he was able to limp some 200 yards to the house. When Effie saw the gaping wound, she immediately became excited and commenced running about like a hen that has lost it’s head, and is somewhat bewildered in consequence. In fact, she was almost hysterical. However I got the man inside and had Effie bring me something to put his foot on, to keep the blood off the floor, and a towel for bandages. Then I took off his boot and three socks as carefully as possible, as the fellow was apparently in great pain. The axe had cut from the arch of the foot, split the middle toe, and gone right through the foot making a cut in the bottom (instep) of the foot about an inch and a half in length. I have seen more serious cuts, but this was the worst looking cut that I have ever seen, however it bled very little which was a good thing. Then I bandaged up the foot as good as I could, although I can’t do it as well as Ellis, while Effie got the horse and cutter. Dave came home soon after and took him to the doctor. I didn’t go out to see any of the neighbours while I was there, and didn’t even go to Warsaw, but just stayed about the place and had a good time.


Tuesday January 2nd They drove me up to Jen’s this morning and Jen had several people in to supper, and they talked politics till after 10 o’clock at night.

Wednesday January 3rd Ed drove me to Warsaw to catch the stage to Peterborough at 8:00 am. When I arrived home, I found that the landlady, not expecting me back till the next day, had gone out and locked the door. Fortunately I was able to find a window that was not locked and effected an entry thereby. Then I put the time remaining before the 9th of January in systematic cramming with the result that I passed in all subjects as far as I can tell.

Monday January 15th I have just received a letter from my Father dated the 9th of January and I am much obliged to him for going over to Vancouver on my behalf. I am sorry that he was not able to obtain any satisfaction from Humphrys. Humphrys statement that I had signed a contract is wrong. I signed no contract. Perhaps if I had insisted on having our contract written out, I might have avoided all this trouble. I received a letter from Humphrys, a couple of weeks ago, in which he claimed that I had agreed to pay my own expenses to Edmonton, and to take pay from the time work started until it finished. The facts of the matter are these:- In the first place, it was doubtful whether I would be able to go to the Peace River. Then Humphrys told me that he would be able to take me up as a spare transit man, as his Brother-in-law, Higgins had a weak knee and an accident might put him out of commission. He said that he would pay me $135.00 per month. Then it occurred to him that there might be times when there would not be work enough for all, and we agreed that I should not be paid for such periods when I would not be working. I had no objection to making that agreement as I felt quite sure of getting plenty to do. That item, so far as I can make out is the only thing about which there could be any question. Well when we arrived in the Peace River District, instead of acting as spare transit man, I was told by Humphrys, that he had no faith in the other two assistants, and all season I was kept doing the most important work, while Higgins and Tascherau were running secondary or cross lines. I also worked quite a number of days more than any other assistant in our camp. So I don’t think that I should lose very much as a result of not getting enough to keep one busy. This “beating around the bush,” and trying to get me to take less than is due me, makes me almost sick of surveying, or at least of working for private individuals. But never again will I go out without a written contract.

Monday April 8th

I was extremely pleased to hear from my Mother today after a long silence.  I am looking forward with a great deal of pleasure to seeing her again.  It seems ages since I was home last.  I am unable to say how long I shall be able to spend at home.  It depends on what plans Humphrys & Tupper have made for this summer.  I am glad to hear of Uncle Ernest’s recovery.  It must be a great relief to Aunt Effie.  I hear that cousin Beattie Carrol is or was very sick.  Spring has been a long time coming, but we have hopes that it will soon be here.  In fact, some people consider that it is already here and have begun gardening and housecleaning.  This house has been turned upside down for the last few days.  We had a flurry of snow today, but perhaps it was only winter’s last expiring kick  \\ 

Wednesday April 9th. Looking out of my window this morning, I notice that 4 inches of snow fell last night. A number of Western students have chartered a car and intend on leaving on April 25th, but I am leaving on the 23rd with a friend of mine who is going as far as Calgary.

Thursday April 10th Our exams begin today. I must also endeavor to soothe my sister Winifred’s ruffled feathers, (She is upset that I have taken so long to write to her) or it will not be safe for me to go west. There are a couple of girls rooming down at the foot of my stairs who bother the life out of me and take up a lot of my time. I have a room all to myself on the top floor and these youngsters have contracted a habit of standing at the foot of my stairs and luring me from my den. It is really very annoying. They have been here since last September, and although I meet them in the hall occasionally, it was not until about a month and a half ago that I happened to come home from church at the same time as they, and Mrs. Geoghegan, the landlady, felt constrained to introduce me. I shall never forgive her although I believe she meant well. Sometimes in the evening just as I settled down to work, one of them comes to the foot of the stairs, and, in silvery tones, asks if I will be so extremely kind as to play a few harmonies for them, and to leave my door open so that they may hear me while I play. I grind my teeth in bitter rage, (I have just had one tooth crowned,) and smile and assure them that if my poor efforts afford them any entertainment, it would become my greatest joy and privilege to oblige them. Accordingly I climb into my harness and wheeze out “Clementine”, “Little Brown Jug”, and kindred popular airs of the moment, and after I have in this manner wasted about an hour, I desist and get back to work. About a month ago, one Saturday afternoon, I was just settling down to do a little plugging when, (execrations) floating up the stairway came these words. “Mr. Wood, come on out in the back yard and we’ll have a snowball fight.” Well of course I had to go and so I spent most of the afternoon throwing snow at a couple of girls and dodging when some of the snow they were throwing at me came my way. So that afternoon was spoiled. Then they had some friends in the parlor one evening, and I had to go down with my musical contraptions and throw out a few musical gems for the benefit of the guests, who politely refrained from exhibiting the true state of their feelings, and appeared to possess remarkable powers of endurance. Of course I had to make some return for all this kindness, so I took them to see a really moral play at the Royal Alexandra, etc. I feel I should weary you should I to relate the many other instances of how these two young ladies encroached on my time. One of the girls, Mabel, is a Faculty of Education girl and graduates this year. I think she is the nicer of the two, she doesn’t bother me as much as the other one. The other girl, Hattie, is a freshie Arts girl. She doesn’t know much yet, of course, but maybe she’ll learn. Probably if I were not a confirmed misogynist I should be pleased at having these young ladies take a friendly interest in me. Lately, however, to my horror and alarm, I find it no longer gives me pain to converse with these distracting persons. Thank goodness, I am leaving in two weeks time. If I come back to Toronto next year, I can assure you that my first question to the landlady will be “Are there any girls in this house?” and if she replies in the affirmative, I shall say “Excuse me !” beat a hasty retreat and hit the trail for some more congenial abode where a plain misogynist can enjoy his misogynism without the distraction caused by the presence of feminine society. That is one reason why I like surveying. A fellow can get away where there are no girls. When one considers that in this country, there are actually more women than men, it is quite evident that the chances of a fellow losing his head, to say nothing of his heart, and getting married, are simply appalling. Every day or so there is an item in the press, telling of some poor heedless man being captured and lead to the alter. But enough said. I think God must dearly love a fool, or else he would not have made so many of them.

Tuesday April 23rd. I finished my exams and left for the west tonight in the company of Hanna.

Monday April 29th I reached Vancouver at 10:50 pm and was met at the station by my brother Clinton, his wife Mary, and Charlie Gow. I spent a week at home in Victoria.

Sunday May 5th and Monday May 6th I spent a couple of days with the folks in Vancouver. Arranged to go again to the Peace River, this spring, this time with John Graham.

Tuesday May 7th I left for Vancouver with Ellis Wood at midnight.

Wednesday May 8th. I spent most of the day making arrangements about our outfit and getting it packed.

Friday May 10th I reached the office 8:00 am and got things straightened out. About 8:20 am, John Graham arrived on the scene with most of the men., then he had the stuff taken to the depot in Humphry’s new automobile, while I hustled down to the station and bought the tickets. With all our outfit duly checked and on board, the seven of us , consisting of John Graham, Ronald Murray, Brassery, Ernie Matheson, Frank Watson, my brother Ellis Wood and yours truly left Vancouver. We had been having an innocent game of whist and after we finished, John Graham and I checked up our expenses to date. I gave John Graham what was left of $300.00 after buying the tickets. A prim old lady, bless her heart, had been watching us with a very disparaging expression, and now felt impelled to ask, in icy tones, if we had been gambling. I don’t think she approved of games of chance. Fortunately we were able to set her mind at rest. We arrived in Strathcona about 10:00 pm and after a jolting bus ride registered at the Windsor Hotel across the river. We picked up Ted McCreary and Grub Nevison at Calgary and Roy Anderson in Edmonton.

Saturday May 11th We remained in town all day, assembling our outfit and making arrangements for getting to Athabasca Landing. I found first that the stage leaves Tuesdays and Thursdays and the C.N.R. passenger trains ran only 3 times a week, leaves Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays and then only as far as Morinville, about 23 miles from Edmonton. From there we would have to trust to getting on a construction train, which runs to within 7 miles of the Landing, but I found that the construction trains were most uncertain factors and this schedule was governed entirely by the need of the construction department, consequently there might sometimes be no train for a space of several days at a time. I was able to gather this information only by interviewing every C.N.R. officer in Edmonton from the General Superintendent, down to the baggage man and finally the yardman, on whose trail, I camped for about 2 hours. Our boat is supposed to leave on Tuesday at noon from the Landing and as we couldn’t depend on the train to get us there on time, John Graham hired a couple of teams to transport us and our equipment. The manager of the Livery stable assured him that he could get us to the Landing on time. John Graham remained behind to finish some business details, intending to catch the Monday train.

Sunday May 12th. I left a call for 4:30 am and at the appointed time, the Bellboy called us, and we started out stopping for breakfast on the way at a restaurant down the street. The wagons had been loaded at the barns the night before. When we reached the stables, the teams had just left and were 300 yards up the street. Happening to glance at the place where the wagon’s had been loaded, we noticed a bundle of blankets lying on the ground, which was identified by Ernie Matheson, one of our party as his personal property. So a couple of the boys ran ahead and stopped the teams, while we caught up with the blankets. About 7:00 am we reached the Transit Hotel and picked up Pat Farley, (our cook), Pink Blair and Masson, (two McGill men) and Thompson (a School of Practical Science transit man) who had run transit on the G.T.P. about 5 miles from town where the teamsters had to wait for breakfast, having neglected to get any in town, and pulled out about 8:30 am. We reached Rye’s farmhouse about 15 miles from Edmonton about noon, and the teamsters turned in for dinner. I went up and knocked on the door of the house. No one answered. The floor was scrubbed and the stove blackened, and apparently no one was about the place, however I continued knocking and finally I heard someone moving about, then someone talking, and finally a young woman came into the kitchen and to her I proffered a request for food. She hesitated and said that she would ask “Lawrence.” So we sat down on the steps and waited. Presently “Lawrence came out and informed us that they would be unable to accommodate us, and continued on his way to the barn. I didn’t say a word, but after “Lawrence” reached the barn, I got up and went out and talked to him and finally he consented to provide for us and we had dinner. We made the next place, Mulligan’s, 24 miles from town, about 5:00 pm. By this time I had came to the conclusion that our teams would be unable to make the Landing on Tuesday travelling only 10 hours a day. (The second team is the sorriest pair of old skates that I have ever seen outside a bone yard. One is afflicted with what the teamsters calls the shivers. I suppose it is foundered, and the other is an ancient brute that has all it can manage to shuffle along with an empty wagon, much less a load of about 700 pounds which was all there was on the second wagon.) So I decided we would have to have an early supper and push on about 10 miles afterwards. if we were to be able to catch our boat, however, just as we were going into supper one of the teamsters came to me and informed me that one of the horses, an ancient brute of some 20 years, refused to eat his oats and had a touch of colic. I examined the animal and it appeared that the old horse was really sick and unfit to travel any farther that night.. So I gave the word and the boys rolled out their blankets on the grass at Mulligan.

Monday May 13th Mulligan called us at 5:00 am and after an early breakfast we pulled out at 6:00 am. We made Portieres by 11:00 am and reached Aiggie’s, the halfway stopping place about 5:00 pm. The people of the house were slow getting supper and it was nearly 7:00 pm before we were called in. The roads had been very dusty and after walking behind the wagons all day, I was as black as a nigger. I went to the back door and inquired of a young woman who was finishing the family wash where I could wash my hands and face. She told me that I could wash in the next room. I made to pass through the kitchen, but in no uncertain tones, I was commanded to keep out and go around. Meekly I obeyed and finding the water pitcher to be empty I proceeded to fill it at a nearby water barrel. I was innocently performing my obligations when the young woman appeared at the kitchen door and commenced a violent denunciation of some one in the washroom. I looked around for the culprit and to my astonishment, noticed that I was the only one in the room. Glancing in surprise at the woman, I was forced to the conclusion that she appeared to be addressing her remarks to me. This lady had a wonderful command of the English language, especially reverse English, and she wanted me to know that in her considered opinion, that in dipping the pitcher into the barrel, I had committed a gross offense as that barrel was reserved solely for drinking water. The epitome of my character as delivered by this Xanthippes was very thorough and left nothing to the imagination, and if I had been convinced of the truth of her remarks, I am sure that life had nothing more to offer me and the future held no measure of hope and that nothing remained, but to end it all and rid the earth of a very despicable character. A stranger might have been convinced, however, I was not entirely convinced. Fortunately for my self respect, I refused to accept her estimate as she was evidently speaking under the stress of strong emotion. Eventually the tirade ceased and I thanked the lady for her opinion. Grabbing up a couple pails she headed for the pump. Her Mother, coming in from the barn, inquired as to the reason for all the commotion and my critic replied that “One of them (blank) fools had went and dipped the pitcher in the drinking barrel.” We reached a stopping place about 54 miles from town where we spent the night.

Tuesday May 14th I left Aiggie’s at 6:00 am, reached Madame LeClairs, for dinner and arrived at Lewis’ at 5:30 pm. We met the stage this afternoon and learned that our boat had left the Landing this morning, and that Lesser Slave Lake was full of ice, and that the next boat leaves the Landing for up the river Thursday night. There were a couple of beds here and some of the boys took advantage of the opportunity to get a comfortable nights sleep. The rest of us rolled our blankets on the ground outside. We had all gone to sleep and some of the boys were snoring in complete repose when along about midnight, we were suddenly awakened by loud cursing and other expressions of alarm, and the boys who had gone to bed inside, came roaring out of the house scratching themselves vigorously. It transpired that the house was alive with bedbugs. Unfortunately the language used does not lend itself to publication on paper. We made 28 miles today.

Wednesday May 15th We pulled out of Lewis’s about 7:30 am. The horses were slow and not very strong and most of the boys walked most the way. The weather was more pleasant than last year in that it was quite dry and warm, but the roads were extremely dusty. I was trudging along this morning ahead of the wagons and getting somewhat dry and thirsty when I came to a sparkling babbling little brook, with water as clear as crystal, and as cold as ice. I did not hesitate to quench my thirst. I drank deep and felt very refreshed and was proceeding on my way quite refreshed, however, when I looked upstream I observed something in the creek bed about 50 feet above where I had had my drink. Closer examination proved it to be the carcass of a horse in an advanced stage of decomposition. Had I noticed this situation before imbibing, I think I would have gone a little higher up, but it was too late for that now, so I had to be philosophical and hope that there would be no ill effects. Our teams are extremely slow. The 1st team is not so bad, but it is certainly a shame to send such a team as the 2nd team, on a trip like this. One is the feeble old brute a fore mentioned, and the other, the better of the two, is very badly foundered. Today we had lunch on the road and reached the Landing about 3:30 pm. Ellis Wood and some others got in about noon. John Graham took the train from Edmonton on Monday and arrived the day before the wagons, and took the boys for a drink. We were pleased to complete this stage of our journey. The town of Athabasca Landing has grown considerably since we were here last year. The C.N.R. end o’steel had just reached town. One of the Hotels has a bar of ample length, in order to gather in the loose cash, that is a prominent feature where a large number of natives are employed. Some of the boys took advantage during the evening of the proximity of a saloon to do a little celebrating of their farewell to civilization by pouring large quantities of spirituous liquor into their already long suffering stomachs and seriously depleted the local liquor supply with the natural result, and became so interested in this operation that it was with considerable difficulty that they were induced to desist and persuaded to go on board the waiting boat. I don’t know what they had to celebrate, as it was likely the last opportunity they would have for that sort of indulgence, until we came out at the end of the season. Several new stores are open and appear to be doing a good business. Several places of amusement are catering to the public and appear to be quite popular. We attended a moving picture show last night. A young man attempted to sing an illustrated song for us. He had a fair voice, but didn’t seen to know his song very well. It was a somewhat sentimental song, and it seemed to me that it distracted considerably from the effectiveness of the song, when in the midst of an impassioned strain, he would suddenly forget his lines, and stop to peer at his song sheet to see what words came next. When we arrived in this town we were a pretty tough looking crowd: dirty, dusty and unshaven. As soon as possible I got to a barbershop and had a shampoo, shave and haircut. I also attempted to get a bath. However, I found that a bathtub is a luxury wholly unknown in this town, as there is no domestic waterworks system, consequently, I was forced to take a bath in a wash basin. We registered at the Grand Union Hotel. The two hotels are crowded. In some cases, as many as seven men are put in a room and two in every double bed: if you are particular about sharing a bed you can sleep on the floor. The Hudson’s Bay Company is building two large riverboats here. It is said that the machinery for the larger boat is from a boat that was wrecked on the Skeena not long ago.

Thursday May 16th The good ship “Northland Call”, arrived here last night from Mirror Landing and is about 25 feet shorter than the good ship Northland Sun, on which we traveled last spring and departs again for Minor Landing tonight at 7:30 pm.. We may have to go around Lesser Slave Lake by road, as it is said to be still full of ice. Our baseball team was out for practice last night, and we are confident of our ability to defeat the Athabasca Landers in the match scheduled for 2:30 pm today. Last year we were ignominiously defeated to the tune of 9 – 3. We played the baseball game as per schedule and came within 7 runs of winning. Score 13 – 6. Ellis Wood distinguished himself by again knocking unconscious one of the opposing players who ran into him. The man was able to continue as soon as he got back his wind. All the boys of my last years party are back again this year. Most of the others however are new men. It has been very cloudy and cold all day and it rained all night.

Friday May 17th All last night and all of this morning it rained steadily, so on account of the forbidding appearance of the outside world and as the only other accommodation was the open deck, I remained in my stateroom until about 11:00 am and no one seemed to miss me. Just after I had arisen from my virtuous couch, a moose was observed swimming across the river about ¼ mile ahead of us. As it climbed up out of the water, and paused for a moment, on the narrow beach, before plunging into the sheltering bush. The Captain sounded the whistle several times in succession. We naturally supposed, those of us that were green, that this would frighten the animal into the bush, but to our surprise, the animal immediately turned and plunging again into the stream, started back to the other shore from whence it had come. The Captain told us that the creature is frightened by the echo thrown back from the hills. This proved to be the case. First excitement prevailed. The captain signaled for full steam ahead. Masson got his .303 and he and the purser commenced a fusillade, in which it would be a shame to say how many bullets were fired at the helpless creature. The first 8 shots were misses. Apparently none of the shots found their mark and every moment, the powerful strokes of the laboring muscles were bringing the moose closer and closer to the shore. It had almost reached the shore and despair was in our hearts, when just as it gained footing at the edge of the shore, Masson fired again and his bullet struck it’s mark breaking the moose’s back and it dropped in it’s tracks. When we took it aboard, it proved to be a young moose about 2 years old, and the fresh meat was greatly appreciated later on. We reached Mirror Landing at 8:05 pm. Ernie Matheson, still wearing his bowler hat, went over to Remboldt’s, about 6 miles distant, to arrange about teams to transport our equipment and slept at Donaldson's about four miles farther.
Saturday May 18th After breakfast we unloaded our stuff and piled it in the ware house. The wagons arrived about 10:00 am. The mail was loaded on one and on the other we loaded 1700 pounds. of our outfit, mostly blankets. We crossed the 15 mile portage where we embarked on another small steamer the Northern Light and had supper on board. It was not then certain, that we would be able to cross the lake on account of ice. It rained part of the day and was cloudy.

Sunday May 19th. We crossed over to Salteaux Landing, just above the rapids on the Lesser Slave River. About two tons of mail that had accumulated there was taken aboard. The wagons with the remainder of our stuff arrived at 3:45 pm. The boat started up the Lesser Slave River about 4:30 pm. We tied up at 6:00 pm while the crew had supper. Sunset here is at 9:00 pm. Two Indians, on their way down the river, told us the ice had just gone out and that the lake is now free of ice. We tied up for the night at 10:05 pm. This is the first trip of Northland Light for this season traveling 48 miles from Salteaux Landing to Sawridge and 80 miles across the lake to Grouard.

Monday May 20th Sunrise, came at 4:30 am. The boat started up the river about 3:00 am. We reached Sawridge at 8:00 am. We had a pleasant trip across Lesser Slave Lake. We passed a whitefish curing plant on an island and reached the bridge about 1 ½ miles from Grouard 8:30 pm.

Tuesday May 21st John Graham arranged with Norris to have our outfit transported across the long portage to the Peace River Crossing. The wagons arrived about 9:15 am, loaded up and went over to town. The ice in the wells in Grouard is still 8 to 10 feet in thickness except for a hole in the middle, kept open by drawing water in a pail. The ice is said to remain in the well until September. We had dinner at the Royal Hotel and left town at 2:45 pm with 2 wagons, 1500 lbs. to the wagon. The roads were so bad that we later found this to be too heavy a load for this road for a two horse team. Most of the boys walked on ahead. The cook and I kept with the wagons and I was fortunate that we did as about half a mile out of town, the second wagon driven by Grub Nevison became mired in a bad mudhole. We hitched the other team, ahead of the first team on this wagon. The wheels were so deep in the mud, that it was not until we had lifted the wagon wheels bodily out of the muck, by means of blocks and levers, and put planks under them, that we were eventually able to extricate the wagon after 1 ½ hours strenuous exertion. Coming to a creek, 8 miles out about 8:00 pm, we pulled off to one side of the road and camped for the night. First however it was necessary for us to help an Indian freighter, whose wagon had become mired in the aforesaid creek where it crossed the road and blocked our progress. As he was loaded with freight, it was a case of combining business with pleasure. He was unloading his wagon when we arrived. This was a third wagon carrying our supplies. So we hitched one of our teams on and pulled him clear. Grub Nevison had an attack of epilepsy just after going to bed.

Wednesday May 22nd. The teamster hunted three hours before locating his horses. We started out at 7:30 am and spent all morning getting into mudholes and getting out again. The 1st team generally got through alright, but Grub Nevison didn’t seem to have the knack of driving through mudholes and generally got stuck. One cannot hesitate when going through a mudhole. They should be approached at top speed. He did not seem to have very good control of his team so Masson took over and we had very little trouble thereafter. We made about 4 miles this morning. John Graham arrived at 2:00 pm and arranged with a freighter to take 450 lbs. of our load. We pulled out again about 3:00 pm and made Pete LeDuc’s by 9:00 pm, after having had supper on the road. The road was very much better this afternoon. There was a hard frost last night.

Thursday May 23rd. After breakfast we started out at 7:30 am. We lost an hour on account of getting on the wrong road and coming to an impassable slough. We had to retrace our steps to get back on the right road. We crossed Heart River at 3:45 pm and followed it for over a mile. We made 5 miles by 11:00 am and had lunch. We made 9 miles by 4:30 pm and had supper. Then went on 4 miles to Barehead’s and camped for the night. Friday May 24th We pulled out at 6:15 am after breakfast and made Paul’s about 6 miles east of Little Prairie for. We reached Crooked Bridge at 8:00 pm.

Saturday May 25th We pulled out about 7:15 am and made the Peace River Crossing about 11:00 am. We had dinner at the Peace Hotel. Nearly all the stopping places, which we passed on the portage, were closed for the summer as they cater to the winter freighters. We were interested in observing a squaw preparing a “mulligan stew” for her family. . The main dish consisted of choice assortment of small animals and included, 1 muskrat, 1 rabbit, and 1 groundhog all boiling merrily together. The heads were left on and sometimes a black eye would come to the surface and peer at the stranger. Judging from the eager look of expectancy on the faces of the younger generation, this was a dish not to be despised. Ellis Wood was unfortunate enough to suffer from toothache on the trail and adopted several modes of treatment. At first, he tried chewing tobacco, and then tried filling his mouth with rum. This latter treatment appeared to sooth the aching molar although I am not sure whether one treatment was sufficient. Did he spit the rum out? Well, wouldn’t it be a shame to waste good liquor after carrying it so far? In the afternoon we set up the cook stove and Paddy, the cook, got to work. Our boat does not leave until Tuesday May 28th so we are in plenty of time. We arranged about berths on the Hudson’s Bay steamer “Peace River.” The weather is very warm. The trees were just breaking into leaf when we left Edmonton. They are fully leafed out here. The new growth on many trees is already five or six inches.

Sunday May 26th We spent a quiet and uneventful day at Peace River Crossing waiting for our freight to arrive.

Monday May 27th It rained all day. Large quantities of driftwood are floating down the river. After supper we packed up our cooking equipment and loaded it on the “Peace River” which was docked from down river. Went aboard and bunked in for the night.

Tuesday May 28th After breakfast on the boat, we steamed across the river to a wood pile and wooded up. The wood pile was situated at the top of a steep bank. The process of “wooding up” took about 5 hours. About 2 :00 pm. sufficient wood had been loaded on board and we finally commenced our journey up the mighty Peace. About 12 miles south of the crossing is a Mission run by some Roman Catholic Society. The Bishop in charge of the mission had sent word to the Crossing that he wished to go to Fort St. John so we stopped there. About thirty children, mostly half breeds and Indians, varying in age from two to seventeen, boys and mostly girls, were lined up as close to the edge of the bank as they dared to come and watched the boat in solemn silence. Several nuns in the black and white attire were keeping watch over their little flock, their knitting needles incessantly flashing in and out kept pace with their wagging tongues as they talked among themselves. We had to wait some time for his eminence, but at last he came hurrying down attended by a couple of lesser priests. The old gentleman is quite a picturesque character. On his head he wore a square black cap. His long flowing snowy beard tossed merrily in the wind and presented a striking contrast to the dull black of his priestly robes. To complete his costume, around his waist he wore a long violet coloured sash. Since sending worked to the crossing, he had changed his mind and now informed the captain that he would not be going up this trip. Apparently it had not occurred to him to telephone or telegraph to the crossing. The Captain retired to his sanctum, where he indulged, for a few moments, in strong language. I think he was annoyed about something. Then he suddenly blew the whistle. The effect of the whistle on the crowd of children was extremely amusing and almost scared them out of their wits,. They had crowded as close to the edge of the bank as possible and at the sudden noise of the whistle, they were so startled that they tumbled head over heels in all direction away from the blast, falling over one another in their haste. Some of them ran back for a hundred feet before wanting to stop. The captain says that they act the same way every time they hear the whistle at close quarters. We asked him to blow the whistle again after the children had recovered from their alarm and took some snapshots while they were running away. This is one of the few Roman Catholic Missions where the children are taught to speak English. About 10 miles upstream we came to an English, Anglican, Mission where we took on ten sacks of potatoes. One of the children at this Mission is a little Indian orphan. His parents died at Fort St. John two years ago during an epidemic of measles, which wiped out nearly a hundred of the tribe. After his parents died the child ran wild existing like a stray dog, living on such scraps of food as he could find, until he was found and brought to the Mission. We reached Dunvegan about 10:00 pm. One of our passengers; a Mrs. Campbell is a woman from Michigan. She has been searching for months for her son Rob, who ran away from home some years ago. While in Edmonton, she heard that Rob had been seen in Fort St. John last winter.

Saturday June 1st The journey up the river is extremely monotonous. The scenery is without variation and the rate of progress is slow. About once a day, it is necessary to tie up for several hours while the deckhands go ashore and cut half a dozen cords of wood. Consequently there was great excitement one morning, when just as we were sitting down to breakfast, the pilot came rushing in shouting “Mooswa! Mooswa!” Breakfast was forgotten and there was a hurried scramble for guns, and in a few moments, eight or nine rifles were banging away at the moose, which had just come out of the bush about 700 yards ahead, and was standing stupidly gazing at the approaching boat. The engineer and a couple of deck hands were firing from the lower deck, four of the passengers including Ellis Wood with his .22, on the main deck, and the Captain from the wheel-house, at the moose which had just come out of the bush on to the shore. All together it was a very formidable array. The bullets, striking the ground behind the moose, and throwing up the dust, frightened it into the water, or perhaps, it was the echo from the woods and it commenced swimming across the stream. The force of the current rapidly brought it closer to the boat, By this time we were only 200 yards distant. The captain and one of the passengers, McIntosh fired together, both hitting the moose, which instantly rolled over on it’s side and after one or two convulsive kicks lay still. The current soon brought it alongside the boat, and it was hoisted aboard. It proved to be a cow about three years old. It had recently been attacked by a bear and it’s hind legs were badly scratched. Probably the bear had killed the calf, as the cow was in milk and was alone on the beach. The meat proved to by very tender and made a welcome change from canned meat.

Sunday June 2nd We reached St. John about 2:30 pm having been on the boat for almost 5 days, long enough to cross the Atlantic.. The local inhabitants were extremely pleased to see the boat, as all the food in the place had been exhausted and they had been living, some of them on rabbits and fish for the last 6 weeks. Quite a number, about 10, squatters were here, who had come in from Fort George, over Giscombe Portage, down the Crooked River into the Parsnip, and down the Peace to Hudson’s Hope, where they are locating in hopes of a railroad coming in and making them prosperous. The Beaver Indians, the same tribe that was so nearly wiped out by the measles a few years ago, were encamped about a mile from the fort, and quite a number of young bucks were down to see the boat. waiting to trade their furs. The catch in this district is said to have been very good last season. The squaws are very wild. I tried to get a photo of a group sitting on the bank, but no sooner did they see me pointing my camera, than they jumped to their feet and ran like deer. They thought that this was bad medicine I suppose. We obtained several sacks of potatoes here. Above Fort St. John the trench like valley widens out and is several miles wide. The vegetation is remarkably luxuriant all through this country. Peavine and vetches are already 18 inches high. The engineer tells me that the vegetation and forest growth is practically the same all the way to the mouth of the Mackenzie River. There is no news as yet of Pete and Red Slivers, our two packers with the Pack Train. They left Edson on the 10th. of May and are supposed to be in Fort St. John by the 4th of June. Frost over night.

Tuesday June 4th We left Fort Saint John about 6:00 am, and steamed up as far as Cache Creek, about 20 miles where we finally disembarked with our outfit about 10:30 am. Our pack train, about 20 horses, came up by trail. We spent most of the morning moving the bulk of our excess freight and dunnage into a nearby log cabin nearby and set out on the last stage of our journey, following the R.N.W.M.P. trail. This is one of the longest trails in existence, The distance is said to be about 1,000 miles and runs from Fort Saint John to Dawson. This R.N.W..M.P. trail was supposed to provide an overland route to the Klondike from Edmonton during the gold rush of 1898. It was cut through to facilitate the work of the police, during the gold rush in the Yukon, and to avoid the necessity of taking prisoners through Alaska. Lodge cabins were built every 30 miles or so along the trail as shelters for the gold-seekers. Mile posts are planted for at least several hundred miles from Fort Saint John and also several hundred miles from Dawson. Terrible tales are told of the hardships and privations of those hardy souls who attempted the trail. Many tackled the trail, but few succeeded. Most of the traveler’s had no idea of the difficulties to be encountered. One party even attempted to take along a piano, which was eventually abandoned along the way.

Wednesday June 5th About noon we hit the trail, and for two or three miles, we followed the course of Cache Creek, fording it so often, that Frank Watson said that we might as well be fording the creek endways. About 4 miles from the river, we climbed a rough steep trail out of the valley to the plateau. We had a great deal of trouble with the packs for the first few days, as the cinch ropes were all new, and consequently were continually stretching and slipping. Several times the pack slipped on some of the horses, and if the horse happened to be of an excitable disposition, it was not long before the whole pack was strewn all along the trail. Some of the pack horses rebelled against carrying their packs up this trail and tried to get rid of their loads. One got his pack twisted around so that it was hanging from his belly. Another started kicking and bucking and eventually succeeded in shaking his entire pack off and scattering it all over the country. We had quite a time picking up his pack and loading it back. On such occasions, the eloquence of the packers, became something grand, and even reached the sublime. One of the packers recites passages from Lamentations at the top of his voice, when things really became irritating. Reaching the top of the hill we had a magnificent view of a rolling plateau. Eighty miles away across a level stretch of country, lightly forested with aspen and poplar, the mighty Rockies reared their snowy peaks to the western sky. All the watercourses lie in deep gullies of their own making, being hundreds of feet below the general level of the plateau. We reached Cache Creek again at Mile 32 on the R.N.W.M.P. trail to Dawson, Yukon Territory at 4:30 pm, coming straight through without dinner and we were certainly glad to get something to eat. Then we carried on until 9:00 pm where we had something more to eat, when we made camp for the night. Of course it was still broad daylight at 9:00 pm. Made 10 miles today, the tender tops of the willows and of various plants were badly frostbitten last night. Saskatoons, choke cherries and another variety of cherry are heavily laden. The air becomes chilly as soon as the sun goes down. Ellis Wood had the misfortune to badly sprain his left ankle, coming down a steep hill, just at the junction of the North Fork with the Halfway River. so he was in rather hard luck

Thursday June 6th We hit the trail at 9:00 am after the packers had loaded all the horses. We climbed out of Cache Creek and on to the plateau. We traveled along the south side of an open grassy hillside lying between the two branches of the Cache Creek for a mile or so, then through stretches of fire killed spruce into the open again. South of the trail, lies hundreds of square miles of fire-killed timber. Throughout the whole country, incessant conflict is waged between the bush and the prairie. The weapons are fire and water. In wet years the bush gains. In dry years the prairie advances as the bush is destroyed. We crossed the south branch of Cache Creek at noon and passed through a lot of bad country after crossing the creek, however, the last two miles before reaching the Halfway River was through open country. We climbed to the top of a high hill and then dropped down to the north fork of the Halfway River and camped on the far side. The pack train arrived about 3:30 pm. Red Slivers, Ted McCreary and I brought up the rear arriving about 5:00 pm. As we were coming down the hill, we broke a cinch hook and had to cut down a tree and fabricated a new hook. Ted went ahead with three of the horses. As soon as we had got things fixed up we hit the trail again. About a hundred yards down the hill we came upon Ted sitting on a pack load. One of the cinches had broken and he had to unload the horse. Traveling up and down steep hills puts a tremendous strain on the gear; so I took two horses and went down the hill and across the river to camp, while Ted and Red Slivers packed the outfit down to the river’s edge. I found that Ellis Wood had badly sprained his left ankle in coming down to the hill and will be out of commission for a week or so.

Friday June 7th. We hit the trail about 9:30 am. John Graham went ahead to Milligan’s camp. We reached Spruce Creek about 4:30 pm near the 60 M.P. Some of the boys went down to the river to fish after supper, but were unsuccessful. I went up to the base line for a walk. . We made our last camp on the trail, this evening.

Saturday June 8th Frank Watson and I got up at 3:30 am, had breakfast and took a couple of biscuits and some ham for lunch and set out to look over the country and select a suitable camping ground.. We went along the trail to the westerly boundary of the Peace River Block and followed it North to the North Fork of the Halfway River, 5 ½ miles from the trail. Milligan’s work ends about 2 ½ miles west of the trail, and we wanted to locate a camp about 2 miles north of Milligan’s line and 2 miles west of the Block.. When we reached the river we traveled west for a mile and then south west for a mile and a half. We struck a creek and followed it south for about a mile, but were not able to locate a satisfactory camp ground. Sunday June 9th John Graham started running lines, while I took 4 axemen and cleared a trail about three miles from the main trail, into the country where we expect to work. I followed a creek all the way and we had cut about 3 miles of trail and were ¼ mile North of Milligan’s line when the pack train caught up with us about 4:00 pm. As the horses would not remain quiet with their loads, we decided to camp right where we were. Accordingly we went to work and cleared a camp site about 30 feet square and unloaded the horses. Then the pack train went back to the river. We have been working steadily along, hardly losing a day on account of the weather. Some of the country has been very poor on account of muskeg, moss, and thick jackpine, but some has been very good. Where the timber has been burned off, the growth of peavine, vetches and grass is amazing. The peavine, in particular, grows very thick. Three varieties of currents, two varieties of gooseberries, raspberries, strawberries, cranberries etc. grow luxuriously in many places. Yesterday we had lunch in the midst of a patch of red currents, and each picked a cup full. The extremely large size of the poplar, is one of the most noticeable features of the unburned forest. Ranging in diameter from 4 inches to 24 inches, their clean white trunks stretch up over 50 feet without a single branch, bursting into leaf in a bunch at the top. The black pine averages 12 inches and the spruce is sometimes as large as 36 inches. Willow and birch also attain a large size in this country, as well as the cottonwood. When the weather is nice, there is no finer country anywhere, in which to spend the summer.

Monday June 10th John Graham and I went out to the north west corner of Lot 1. John Graham ran west, and I ran the west boundary of Lot 10.

Tuesday June 11th I ran ¼ of the west boundary Lot 9 and the west boundary of Lot 2. I set two ¼ Section posts on the north boundary 1314 and 1315.

Wednesday June 12th I finished the west boundary of Lot 9 and ran 55 chains of the north boundary of Lot 9.

Thursday June 13th We ran the west boundary of Lot 8. Leaving the creek we continued south, reaching the north east corner of 1315 by noon. We stopped and had lunch here, then followed the line south to the trail and reached camp about 3:00 pm, having obtained a good idea of the country which is certainly fierce here. We covered about 20 miles during the day, but were unable to find an open place big enough for a camp. Windfalls are plentiful and the bush is dense. What this country needs is a systematic deforestation. What timber there is in this country, is practically useless, consisting of scrub poplar, jackpine and spruce, but the soil is good and if burned off would triple in value. People outside raise a howl over forest fires in this country. It is a pity there are not more fires. This country will be no good until it is cleared. I found that Ellis Wood had met with another accident, having slit his wrist open for about 3 inches, with his pocketknife. John Graham sewed it up.

Friday June 14th It rained all day, so I called it ‘Sunday’ and remained in camp.

Saturday June 15th I ran the north boundary of Lot 7.

Sunday June 16th. I ran 70 chains of the north boundary of Lot 6. The bush is extremely dense in this part of the country.. It is many years since a fire has run through Lots 6, 7 and 8, and to the north or south and the bush is full of dead wood.

Monday June 17th I ran 70 chains and finished the north boundary of Lot 6 and ½ of the west boundary. The bush here is very thick. John Graham worked on the trail all day.

Tuesday June 18th. I finished the west boundary of Lot 6 and completed the west boundary of Lot 5. (20 chains). We missed the line in the morning so we didn’t get started to work until noon after we had lunch. We finished about 5:00 pm, had a cup of tea and headed for our new camp. John Graham was on the trail most of the day. Our camp moved 8 miles to a location on the north fork of the Halfway River. After finishing work we still had 10 miles to go to reach our new camp which we reached at 8:45 pm. The rest of the gang arrived at 9:15 pm. The camp is situated on the bank of the river and at the foot of a high grassy sandstone hill.

Wednesday June 19th John Graham went out on the line. My party remained in camp and made tables and put up the dinning fly, etc. After dinner I went out and brought the instruments back 10 miles, from where they had been left the previous day, down to where I start tomorrow. Then I cut out 1,000 feet of line and returned to camp.

Thursday June 20th I started at the south west corner of Lot 19, and ran west boundary of Lot 19 and ¾ of the north west boundary of Lot 19. I crossed the river at 58 chains going north and 25 chains going east. This is much the best country that we have encountered so far. The soil is a good sandy loam and the bush has been pretty well burned off. We ran through strips of heavy spruce, but the trees were not close together and we made good time. The vegetation along the river bottom grows vigorously, and the grass in many places is 3 ½ feet high. Vetches and peavine makes a rank growth. One vetch will sometimes cover an area of 10 square feet.

Friday June 21st I completed the north boundary of Lot 19 and crossed the river again at 62 chains. I went back and had lunch on the river bank at 25 chains and started north from the south west corner of Lot 22. I came into the open at 40 chains, after 2 chains of thick spruce. The north west corner of Lot 22 came on the brow of a sandstone faced hill, about 600 feet high. The hillside is practically all open and covered with a heavy growth of grass and peavine. I reached the corner and ran east ½ mile, following along the brow of the hill, and the line drops at the half mile into a valley. The grass and peavine are very thick on the hill top. There is also scattered small poplar.

Saturday June 22nd I called today Sunday and remained in camp.

Sunday June 23rd I finished the north boundary of Lot 22 and ran the west boundary of Lot 29.

Monday June 24th I ran the north boundary of Lot 13 and ¼ of the west boundary of Lot 13.

Tuesday June 25th I finished the west boundary of Lot 13 and ½ of the west boundary of Lot 18.

Wednesday June 26th I finished the west boundary of Lot 18 and ran the west boundary of Lot 23. A bush fire started apparently from one of our dinner fires. I noticed it first about 3:30 this afternoon due south. It seemed to be burning pretty strongly. It just grazed a 3 foot spruce this afternoon. There is a great deal of fine spruce from 6” along the river bottom.

Thursday June 27th It rained all day, so I remained in camp.

Friday June 28th It rained all morning. After dinner I started Grub Nevison and Ernie Matheson on a picket line, with the rest of the crew I ran the west boundary of Lots 28 and ran 30 chains of the north boundary of Lots 24., 29 and 30 running lines.

Friday June 28th It rained again in the morning. After dinner I started Masson and Ernie Matheson running a picket line east on the north boundary of Lot 23. I took the rest and ran the west boundary of Lot 28, then came back and ran 30 chains of the north boundary of Lot 24.

Saturday June 29th I ran the east boundary of Lot 26, the east boundary of Lot 25 and ½ of the east boundary of Lot 16.

Sunday June 30th I finished the east boundary of Lot 16 and ¾ of the east boundary of Lot 15.

Monday July 1st I finished the east boundry of Lot 15, and ran 51 chains south of the east boundry of Lot 6 to tie in with John Graham’s line. I came back and ran west 20 chains on the north boundry of Lot 15.

Tuesday July 2nd I ran 65 chains west on the north boundry of Lot 15. I brought the instruments to corner of Lots 17, 18, 23 and 24. The pack train arrived in camp today bringing two new men; Stewart and McDonald.

Wednesday July 3rd I ran the north boundry of Lot 18 through thick bush and ran ½ of the south boundry of Lot 24. Frank Watson located a site for our new camp. Thursday July 4th I finished the south boundary of Lot 24 and ran the north and south boundaries Lot 25. Lot 25 is all small willow and poplar, peavine and grass. I passed a deposit of limonite this morning. The country to the west looks like pretty good going. There are big, black thunderheads looming in the west. It is starting to rain tonight. Frank Watson had a party cutting trail today to the new camp.

Friday July 5th The pack train moved dunnage over to the new camp. I finished the north boundary of Lot 24 and after lunch went north along the trail and ran the west boundary of Lot 34. Peavine and vetch is growing thickly here and wild flowers flourished in great profusion.

Saturday July 6th. The pack train moved camp today. I ran the west boundary of Lot 37 and ½ of the west boundary of Lot 44.

Sunday July 7th It rained considerably most of the night so we spent our first Sunday in camp. Most of the boys took advantage of the opportunity to do their laundry and took turns cutting each other’s shaggy locks.

Monday July 8th It rained a little before breakfast which we had late. Paddy’s clock always runs down when we move camp. The bushes were very wet this morning. I ran the remaining half of the west boundary of Lot 36 and also the west boundary of Lot 44. I went back a mile intending to run west but the rain which had been threatening all day, developed into a real downfall. We sought the shelter of some willow bushes, but the relief was very short lived and after half and hour as the rain showed, no signs of abating, we picked up our tools and beat an ignominious retreat for camp. John Graham broke my record today by a quarter of a mile, running 2 ¾ miles. Ronald Murray was transferred to John Graham’s party today. Stewart, a local homesteader and one of the new men came with me. Good man. McDonald, a poor man, quit yesterday and went back to Fort St. John this morning with the pack train (good riddance). After the storm we ran 20 chains further through small dense spruce to the corner. John Graham quit work at 2:00 pm. as the storm, on the other side of the hill where he was working was much heavier. Grub Nevison was in camp sick all day.

Tuesday July 9th It was very misty and foggy this morning. We set out across country to find the end of one of John Graham’s lines, which we eventually found and produced it north. I ran ½ of the west boundary of Lot 38 and the west boundary of Lot 43. We came within 10 chains of camp by noon, so we went in for dinner. About 2:30 pm. it began to rain very heavily. Fortunately we chanced to be running through some large spruce so we availed ourselves of this sheltering bough. After the storm abated we ran 20 chains farther through small dense spruce to the corner. John Graham quit work at 2:00 pm as the storm on the other side of the hill where he was working, was much heavier and included also a goodly assortment of hailstones. Grub Nevison was in camp, sick all day.

Wednesday July 10th I ran the west boundary of Lot 48 and ¼ o the south boundary of Lot 48. The cutting was heavy all day Grub Nevison remained in camp all day. Ted McCreary cut his knee with his machete.

Thursday July 11th There was ice on the water this morning. I set off across country and picked up another of John Graham’s line running north. I finished the west boundary of Lot 39 and ran the west boundary of Lot 42. I passed through a good deal of heavy timber and had to offset several times. Ted McCreary remained in camp today.

Friday July 12th It snowed and rained steadily all day.

Saturday July 13th I ran the west boundary of Lot 49 and ¼ of the south boundary of Lot 49.. Most of Lots 48 and 49 consist of virgin forest. Spruce, pine, poplar, cottonwood, and black pine are predominate and attain huge dimensions. The poplar & black pine is especially noticeable. The poplar growing amongst the spruce and pine, grows straight up for perhaps 50 or 60 feet without a single branch, leafing out in a bunch at the top. in the typical aspen fashion.. In size the poplar often attains a diameter of as much as 20” or sometimes 24”. The pine averages 12” and sometimes reaches a diameter of 24”. The Spruce and cottonwood sometimes are found as large as 3 feet in diameter, but when they are so large, they are generally rotten at the centre. The underbrush consists of. mostly alder and high bush cranberry. Wild currants, gooseberries, raspberries, and cherries to appear to thrive in this soil which consists chiefly of humus with a sandy clay subsoil.

Sunday July 14th. I finished the south boundary of Lots 48 and 49.

Monday July 15th We ran the south boundary of Lots 45, 46 and 47. It took us 4 hours to run the first ½ mile, and we ran only 1 mile in the morning. We ran the last mile in 1 ½ hours. Ellis Wood and Grub Nevison chained. It rained a little at noon. I found some ripe raspberries this morning. The strawberries and dewberries are also ripening and in abundance.

Tuesday July 16th. We ran the north boundary of Lot 39 east. After dinner, we came back and set up on a hill overlooking the valley. I ran ½ of the west boundary of Lot 38 to meet John Graham who ran the other half east. We tied in about 3:00 pm. I started Grub Nevison chaining with Ellis Wood today. Grub Nevison is a poor axeman while Ellis Wood is probably the best axeman in the camp. I have run a total of 45 miles to date of the 90 that we have run.

Wednesday July 17th Starting at the north west corner of Lot 36, I ran a mile west and then ran north meeting John Graham, who is starting a mile north. I ran a mile west and then south for 30 chains. The ice is 1” thick this morning.

Thursday July 18th I ran the west boundry Lot 57. Very thick grass and underbrush cover the ground with large poplar and spruce. It rained most of the afternoon. The pack train arrived today. Stewart and Brassy cut trail.

Friday July 19th I ran the north boundary of Lot 37. There is an abundance of dry firewood. The soil in this area is extremely fertile and the vegetable growth is very rank. . Raspberries, gooseberries and especially red currants thrive. Willow grows to a large size, sometimes as much as 12” in diameter. The soil is mostly humus with a sandy clay subsoil. It rained part of the afternoon. Stewart and Brassy cut trail

Saturday July 20th I called today Sunday. Stewart and Brassy cut trail. “Pink” Blair, Frank Watson and John Graham went on a scouting expedition up the Townsend River. It rained very hard in the afternoon. We expect to move tomorrow to camp No. #4, where we have about 4 days work, then we intend to move back and on up the Townsend River. It is raining again tonight.

Sunday July 21st. It is very misty this morning, raining during the morning. The camp moved over to south boundary of Lot 50 today. I ran the north boundary of Lot 50 and 10 chains on the north boundary of Lot 51. Stewart worked around camp.

Monday July 22nd. I ran the east boundary of Lot 53 and ran 15 chains of the north boundary of Lot 53. It rained nearly all afternoon.

Tuesday July 23rd It rained all night and nearly all day. We remained in camp all day. Fortunately we are camped in the midst of heavy timber so there is plenty of firewood.

Wednesday July 24th. I finished the north boundary of Lot .53 and ran 50 chains on the east boundary of Lot 56. We move over to a new camp tomorrow. The boys scared a bear off line today.

Thursday July 25th. I ran the north boundary of Lot 57 and had a fine feed of red currants at noon, having lunch in the midst of a fine current patch. Our camp moved over into a beautiful valley draining into the Townsend Creek.

Friday July 26th I ran the south boundary of Lot 61.

Saturday July 27th. I ran the west boundary of Lot 61 and the north boundary of Lot 58. Part of the pack train went back to Fort St. John. Ellis Wood started picketing for me.

Sunday July 28th We spent Sunday in camp. I cut a mile of line by myself in the afternoon.

Monday July 29th. I ran the east boundary of Lot 61 and the south boundary of Lot 60. John Graham took my party and I took his.

Tuesday July 30th I ran ½ of the east boundary of Lot 41, the centre lines of Lots 41 and 55 and ½ of the west boundary of Lot 55.

Wednesday July 31st I ran the centre line of Lots 62, 63 and ½ of the centre line of Lot 54.

Thursday August 1st I ran the north boundaries of Lots 60, 61 and 64.

Friday August 2nd I ran ½ of the west boundary of Lot 64, and the centre lines of Lots 60 and 64.

Saturday August 3rd. I ran the centre lines of Lots.61 and 65. We had a great feed of gooseberries in Lot 61. Our camp moved west to the main branch of the Townsend River.

Sunday August 4th We spent Sunday in camp.

Monday August 5th I ran the centre lines of Lots 57 and 58.

Tuesday August 6th I ran the centre line of Lot 59 and the south boundary of Section 108.

Wednesday August 7th I ran the west boundaries of Sections 108 and 113.

Thursday August 8th I ran the centre line of Section 113 and the south boundary of Section 113.

Friday August 9th It rained all day so we remained in camp.

Saturday August 10th It rained all night and part of the morning, so we didn’t get away from camp until about 10:00 am. I ran the south boundary of Section 112 and also the centre line of Section 112. Grub Nevison had to swim the river with the chain.. Ellis Wood cut his knee with his axe and had to go back to camp.

Sunday August 11th I ran the east boundary of Section 103 and ½ of the east boundary of Section 99. The pack train arrived from Fort St. John with mail and supplies.

Monday August 12th It rained all night. and threatened to rain all day so we did not move camp today as we had intended.

Tuesday August 13th Our camp moved today to the west boundary of Section 105. I ran the south boundary of Section 106 and 30 chains of the south boundary of Section 105. We stopped on the banks of the north fork of the Halfway River, which was much larger than we had expected, and it had risen considerably on account of the recent rains. We followed an old Indian trail to camp.

Wednesday August 14th I finished the south boundary Lot 105, ran the south boundary of Lots 118 and 30 chains of the south boundary of Lot 119.

Thursday August 15th I finished the south boundary of Lot 119 and ran ½ of the west boundary Lot 121.

Friday August 16th I finished the west boundary of Lot 121. I came 26 links west of John Graham’s corner. I chained up his line after dinner and found it 10 links short which disposed of 10 links. I ran ¾ of the east boundary of Lot 121.

Saturday August 17th I finished the east boundary of Section 121 coming 17 links east of my corner. I ran the east boundary of Section 118, and took an observation on Polaris. The east boundary of Section 118 passes right through the dining table.

Sunday August 18th We remained in camp all day.

Monday August 19th. I ran the east boundaries Lots 117 and 114. Grub Nevison ran into a nest of yellow jackets and got stung.

Tuesday August 20th I ran the west boundary of Lot 118 and ¾ of the west boundary of Lot 117. The weather has been very hot for past week.

Friday September 6th John Graham had gone away for a couple of weeks. During his absence, I had the honor of entertaining Mr. Gundy, from Toronto, the speculator who is interested in buying most of this land, about 100 sections of it which we are surveying. He arrived in our camp with his Indian guide today.

Sunday September 8th This evening, while Mr. Gundy was in camp, I produced the orchestral outfit, consisting of the autoharp and mouth-organ and we had some music. “Pink Blair” the draftsman, a son of Honorable Blair, (a cabinet minister in Ottawa) built a huge bonfire in front of the office tent, which he shared with me, and the boys came around and we dug up two hymnbooks and had a regular song service. We kept on surveying on the new location.

Friday September 20th John Graham returned from his trip today and as the work here was practically completed, and there remained only 9 Sections to do, he decided to split the camp, going up to Cypress Creek himself, leaving me to complete the remaining work here, and to follow him later.

Tuesday September 24th John Graham and Pink Blair blazed out an Indian trail to my new camp.

Wednesday September 25th I ran a mile of line in the direction of the new camp, and then took my gang over to the new camp, where we found Pink Blair and Red Slivers already at work constructing camp furniture, such as tent poles, etc. Red Slivers was working on the dining table. We all got to work getting everything ready so that when the pack train arrived we could set up our camp without any loss of time. 6:00 pm came and went, but no pack train arrived, so we divided up a couple of grouse among the six of us and barbecued the fragments before the fire. Masson set a couple of string snares. Soon darkness fell and we assumed that the packers wouldn’t be along until next day, so we set about preparing to spent the night in the open. It was a bright, starlit night and we expected it to be very cold and frosty, so we gathered large quantities of spruce boughs and piled them up in a circle around the fire and also cut a large pole of firewood. The promise of it being a very cold frosty night was amply fulfilled. We were, none of us, able to sleep much, because by the time one dozed off to sleep, one was roasting on one side, and the side of him away form the fire became so cold, that he had to turn and warm the other side for a while. So it was necessary to keep turning like a roast on a spit. We told yarns and sang songs for a while until we tired of that diversion. In order to help pass away the time, I endeavored to while away the long night by counting the hours off, on the hour, but this didn’t help me much. The boys unanimously voted that form of amusement rather slow. About midnight we heard a branch crack several hundred yards away. Then another a little closer, then we heard the trampling of some heavy animal coming directly towards us, no doubt attracted by the fire. The crashing of dry twigs came closer and closer while we listened with increasing interest, thankful for anything to take our minds off our discomfort and break the monotony of our frosty vigil.. When about fifty feet away the sounds ceased and the animal appeared to be listening. Evidently the animal stopped to satisfy the curiosity that had brought it so far. Just then someone threw a stick of wood on the fire and we heard no more. This must have alarmed the animal and caused it to steal silently away, for we heard not another sound that night.

Thursday September 26th In the morning we found the tracks of a large moose. As soon as daylight broke, Masson and I went out to examine his snare, but to our disappointment found that the “wapoose” (rabbit) had eaten both snares. After the sun came up we managed to sleep for a few hours. About 11:00 am, as there was still no sign of the pack train, we decided that something must have gone wrong, and prompted also by the prompting or our digestive apparatus, and not wishing to perish in our tracks, we set out for the camp which we had abandoned the previous day. Just as we reached the camp, about 2:00 pm, the pack train was starting out for our new camp so after getting something to eat we returned and pitched camp before supper.

Monday October 7th. We started work today and had a fine feed of fresh potatoes, turnips, and onions tonight. I brought back a couple of coils of snare wire from the other camp, so we have had all the rabbits we could eat ever since. It snowed and rained all night.

Tuesday October 8th It snowed and rained this morning. I sent Red Slivers down to Lot 68, about 7 miles to get the packers. About 7:00 pm he returned bearing a note which he found stuck up on a tree, dated October 5th from John Graham. The note stated, “Mr. Wood, We have gone to Brady’s for grub. You are not to go to Cypress Creek.”, It seems that when he got to Cypress Creek and had a look over the country, he found that instead of getting in 50 Sections of good land, there wouldn’t be more than about 25 Sections, so I am to go back and fill in Sections north of our previous work so we went to work and finished up the rest of the work, which we had intended to do from the Mounted Police trail until it is time to go out. Wednesday October 9th. The pack train has been split also as John Graham and I will be working nearly 75 miles apart by trail. Red Slivers is assistant packer on our pack train. He went down to the main trail this morning and I expected them back this evening, but they didn’t turn up. They will probably be along in the morning. We have had a most pleasant summer so far. Good weather and good country. I have run 60 miles more this year than I ran last year. When Paddy the cook heard that we were going to stay late this year, he decided to go out with the pack train and Roy Anderson was selected to take over his job. Stewart, the homesteader, who came with us late in the season, certainly enjoyed the change in diet, he had been living on rabbits and jack fish. However, not having been accustomed to such rich fare as he got at camp, he developed gastritis and would sit around after a good meal, belching loudly. He said; apologetically, “I can’t help it boys. It’s this darned grub.” I started a rabbit skin robe today, sewing the dry skins on a double thickness of mosquito netting. I only had skins enough to cover about 6 square feet, about 14, but there is no difficulty in getting plenty of rabbits as this country is literally swarming with the animals. We are catching so many rabbits that I am making my robe double. The early skins are gray, but the other side is pure white. We have been able to obtain plenty of fresh meat by means of the snares and the rifle. We generally catch three or four rabbits every morning.

Wednesday October 27th The weather has been bright and fairly frosty. The creek is freezing from the bottom up and the water runs over the ice. There is about 6 inches of snow, and the weather since has been very cold and our breath freezes on our caps. However, despite the cold we keep on running lines. Our tents are quite comfortable as we have small stoves in each tent. In my tent, which I share with Pink Blair, we have dug out a circular area 18” in depth and about six feet in diameter. The stove sits in the centre and we can sit on the perimeter. This makes the tent quite comfortable. For my bed I have dug a hole in the ground two feet wide, three feet deep and about 7 feet long. In the bottom I placed spruce boughs for a mattress, and a couple blankets folded over. It snowed and rained all night.

Friday November 1st Red Slivers went out this afternoon, after we had come in on account of the snow, and bought in 13 grouse and a muskrat. The weather has been bright and frosty. This morning it was -15º F. below zero, but in this valley we are entirely sheltered from the wind, which makes a great difference. This was written at our camp on Blair Creek on the headwaters of the North Fork of the Halfway River. Over on the main Branch of the Halfway River, only 10 or 15 miles west, the wind sweeps down the valley in gales lasting for days at a time. On one occasion, we were working over a ridge separating the Halfway River from the North Fork. On one side was perfect Calmness, on the other, the wind was roaring and howling through the treetops. To our great surprise, just as we were finishing supper, John Graham came walking into camp. He had come from Cypress Creek, about 60 miles away by trail, in order to get a map from Pink Blair, the draftsman, Tonight we had some music and singing. I got out the autoharp and the mouth organ, and the boys came up to the office tent and we spent quite a pleasant evening.

Saturday November 2nd We worked in the neighbourhood of Blair Creek all November and part of December. About the middle of December we started to move out, camping about every 15 to 20 miles. We crossed the Peace River at Fort St. John. I traded the autoharp to Mr. Beatton, the Hudson’s Bay Company Factor at Fort St. John, for some beaded gloves and moccasins (moose-hide). The Peace River was frozen solid. The next day we camped at the Police barracks, while we reinforced the ice on the South Pine River. The South Pine is a faster running river than that of the Peace and the ice wasn’t as thick. We laid branches on the ice at night, and poured water over the branches. In the morning we had a safe passage across the river. Frank Watson went ahead with a couple of axemen and blazed a trail east from the other side. After the trail was marked, the pack train followed. Some of the paths were pretty icy and it was necessary to chop steps at intervals where the grade was steep. One of our horses, old Croppy, so named because his ears were both frozen short, had his own system of negotiating these steep, icy trails. When he came to the top of a hill, he simply sat down and slid on his rump to the foot of the hill, however, he had no way of controlling the direction of his trajectory and if the trail took a turn at the bottom, he continued on a tangent and generally came to a stop wedged between a couple of trees, and remained there until we cut him loose. About the middle of December we arrived at Tremblay’s in Pouce Coupe and arranged for him to transport us by sleighs to Edson. Four sleighs were loaded with our equipment and supplies. Our first stop was at Grande Prairie. The next stop was Beaver Lodge. We crossed some large lakes on the ice. The ice had been blown clear of snow and was crystal clear. Beneath the ice one could see whitefish and pike swimming about. We made Sturgeon Lake on Christmas Day and arranged for a party at the Indian Reserve. The Hudson’s Bay Company had a warehouse with whitefish, ten to a stick, piled high to the ceiling for $1.50 to the stick. We arranged to have the dance in the local community hall of the Indians. As we were throwing the party, we had to provide the refreshments, so we bought a supply of canned goods, including several cans of salmon, biscuits, tea, etc. and made a deal with the local fiddler. The time of the dance arrived and the fiddler arrived and the refreshments were piled on a table in a corner of the room. It was necessary to pay the fiddler before he would perform. This financial arrangement completed, he took his place on the platform, and spent some time tuning his fiddle, but finally everything was ready and the dance began. Our boys selected their partners. One of our men acted as the official caller and we were away. The squaws here are built on the square from the ground up. When the caller announced, “swing your partners”, our lads found that at this point, one did not actually swing one’s partner. It was easier to walk around and come up at the opposite side. Some of these women weighted two to three hundred pounds. While the dance was being vigorously waged, the men of the tribe sat at the table disposing of our provisions. After playing for two hours or so, the fiddler suddenly stopped short and demanded a further fee before proceeding further. Maybe he belonged to the Musicians’ Union. Eventually we arrived at Edson and most of the boys got some money on account from John Graham and proceeded to spend it in various ways. We arranged for transportation to Edmonton via the Grand Trunk Railroad and then on to Vancouver. I spent most of the winter in Vancouver and in Victoria as surveying at this time is pretty slack.


John Graham formed a partnership with Harold Price, B.C.L.S. Harold Price had big ideas and considered himself a potential millionaire. Most of the summer I was employed as an instrument-man on surveys up the coast. Harold Price had a 50 foot Otter cruiser, which we used for casual surveys. Our first survey was on Princess Royal Island where we were engaged in surveying Mineral Claims. These were gold claims and one could see the wire gold in the white quartz. Our cook was a fine old Irishman, who claimed to be the original of “Salvation Jim” in Robert Service’s “Tales of the Sourdough”. His favorite song was, “Where the River Shannon Flows”, which he would sing at the top of his voice and when we heard this we knew breakfast was ready. Princess Royal proved to be the wettest spot which we had ever encountered. It rained heavily most of the time. We started out in the morning with dry clothes, which soon became saturated. At first one would step gingerly over the pools of water, while the rain trickled down our backs and filled up our boots. After that we just sloshed through the water. Fortunately the notebook paper was rain proof. In order to save time we didn’t cut any trees over 8 inches and it kept me gusty, figuring out the offsets and keeping close to the line. Some of the nicest timber was the yellow pine. This wood was practically indestructible and we found stumps in good preservation that must have been hundreds of years old. We camped in a cabin on the mine property. Coming in at night we peeled off our clothes and put on dry clothes, which had been drying for two days. From Princess Royal Island we traveled by Union Steamship to Stuart Island in Bute Inlet. We had to traverse the whole Island and survey the island into homesteads. We used a boat while we were traversing the shore. Some of the rip tides were very fast, particularly the Arran Rapids, which at times was like a roaring torrent. On one occasion while we were lining our boat up to the shore, someone let his grasp of the rope slip and away went the boat out to sea, so there we were, marooned on an island. Fortunately the boat was retrieved by a passing fisherman and returned to the island. A beautiful little lake lay in the centre of the island. The climate was not quite so wet as Princess Royal and we enjoyed some very nice weather. John Graham ran one party and I ran the other. Finally we completed our survey and the Union Steamship called for us and took us back to Vancouver. I spent a few days in Vancouver and Harold Price took us to Kitamat in his Motor Cruiser, the ‘Kleetsa’. We enjoyed a very interesting trip through the Inside Passage and passed Swanson’s Bay on the way. Traveling at night, it was interesting to note the phosphorescent trails left by the sea life as it coursed through the water. The boat was equipped with a commodious cabin, galley and a number of bunks. Harold Price had some fine records and a phonograph, which furnished us with entertainment en route. We noticed quite a swell when crossing Queen Charlotte Sound. Many beautiful waterfalls came tumbling down the mountain sides. After spending one night at sea we arrived at the Indian Village of Kitamat and unloaded at the dock. Kitamat lies near the upper end of Douglas Channel and there is about 10 to 15 feet variation in the ice, consequently at low tide it is quite a problem unloading. Since there was no dock at the mouth of the Kitamat River across Minette Bay, we rented three dugout canoes to transported our outfit to our camp site. Our camp was set up in an abandoned home-site and we were fortunate enough to locate beside a large patch of strawberries, which were just ripening, so we had all the strawberries we could use. We soon set up camp and the cook got to work while we made tables and bunks and cut firewood. The river was full of salmon of many varieties so we had all the fish we could eat. Generally speaking the weather was quite pleasant, our work consisted in laying out 40 acre lots and some of the timber was pretty large. The Sitka Spruce often reached a diameter of over five feet. Since we never cut anything over five feet it was necessary to do a good deal of offsetting. Since the River provided the only path through the dense forest we had to work our way from point to point up the river by canoe. Accordingly, we hired two experienced canoe men to handle the boats up the rapid stream. One was a SimseanIndian and the other was a white man. The Indian was a typical native, with the short legs and long back, characteristic of the west coast natives who spend much of their lives in their canoes. He had his young son with him, of whom he was very proud. Since the River was swift and shallow in some parts it was necessary to resort to poling. One man would hold while the other got a new grip. Unfortunately, while negotiating some fast water, the boat ran under a sweeper and the white canoe man was knocked overboard and was instantly swept downstream and drowned. His body was recovered about two months later washed up on the shores of Minette Bay. One Sunday morning as I was walking along the bank of the River my attention was attracted by a strange squawking and upon investigation, I discovered a young mink about six inches long crouching beside a log. It had a slight wound on the side of it’s neck and had apparently been abandoned by it’s Mother. I picked it up and took it to the cook tent where we gave it some warm milk on a rag. It was very hungry and eagerly sucked up the milk from the rag. I made a cage for it and it soon became quite tame and it wasn’t long before it was sleeping in my blankets at the foot of my bed. Soon it became tame enough so we could let it have the run of the camp and it made itself very much at home. It soon found the cook tent and made a practice of visiting the cook for mid-meal snacks. On one occasion it hopped in to the open oven and scorched it’s feet slightly, whereupon it departed hastily with squawks of indignation. However, the cook was soon forgiven and friendly relations were reestablished. Naturally it had a special affection for me and it always went to bed when I did. I found it to be a most playful and affectionate pet and it was very fond of curling around my neck. Several times I attempted to take a snapshot of the mink. The only way I could do this was to set it on the ground and race up the beach at top speed. Then I would turn about and try to snap the animal before it could reach me. It made a put-put-put sound as it followed me and when it reached me it was up and curled around my neck in a flash. He loved to go down to the river bank and plunge into the river after a minnow or frog, after which he would enjoy a roll on the warm sand. Whenever we moved camp I had to put him in a box with a screen top and he just hated that and would cry plaintively to be set free. However, he soon made himself at home in the new camp. After a while he took to absenting himself for longer periods and when we finished work and finally moved out he was not to be found and we had to go without him. We boarded the Union Steamship for Vancouver. All of our baggage was piled on the deck and during the night someone got into my suitcase and scattered everything about. All my films were opened and ruined so I had no snaps of the Kitamat trip. We had an uneventful trip down to Vancouver. The boat rolled somewhat when crossing Queen Charlotte Sound and Millband Sound, but my supply of ‘Mothersill’ Seasick Remedy proved effective. I had a short visit to Victoria.

Sunday November 2nd I received a call from Graham & Price regarding a job on the Skeena River. I didn’t catch the Gorge car tonight, The Gorge car had passed the station down by the saloon, just before I reached it.

Monday November 3rd I caught an Esquimalt car and had a very pleasant trip across the water from Victoria to Vancouver. I spent most of the day getting our outfit together in preparation for our trip to the north. The express delivery arrived at 8:45 pm and took our baggage to the Grand Trunk Pacific Dock. We went aboard the steamship for Prince Rupert.

Tuesday November 4th We left Vancouver this morning shortly after midnight. Contrary to what I had expected, I find that I am in charge of the party, as John Graham is not coming up. There are only five of us including ‘Salvation Jim’, (the cook), Brown, Harry Sutherland, Cook, and myself. Instead of going direct to Hazelton, I stop off first at Kitwanga, which we’ll reach by train. Then we get a pack train and go up the Kitwanga River some 15 miles and lay out about half a dozen sections of land. When that is completed, I go on to Hazelton and work on Subdivision. We have been having a splendid trip so far (at 1:00 pm) but just now I heard one of the officers remark that he expected the boat would roll quite a bit this afternoon and I notice she is beginning to roll already. Well, let her roll. I have with me, a package of Mothersill’s Seasick Remedy and I propose justify myself against the attacks of Mal de mer if the remedy works. There are not a great many first cabin passengers on board, perhaps 40 or so, so we are having a very quiet trip. While the furnishings of this boat are not as lavish as on some of the C.P.R. boats, still on the whole, it is very comfortable and convenient boat and travels along at a good rate with a minimum of vibration.

Wednesday November 5th We arrived at Prince Rupert in the morning about 9:00 am., after a nice trip through the inland passage and checked our baggage to Kitwanga on a construction train. The train was crowed mostly with natives going to work on the railroad. The new agent serves meals on the train which are very simple, but expensive. Two eggs cost 25 cents, one has a choice of pork and beans, hot or cold, for 35 cents and a few other staples at corresponding prices. The train pulled out at 10:00 am and we reached Kitwanga at 4:05 pm. Apparently this was just a whistle stop, and as we stood on the platform, we noticed that our baggage wasn’t being put off. The train pulled out and continued on it’s way before we could reach the baggage car, taking our baggage with it in spite of our protests. We thus learned that in order to have ones baggage put off at our destination, it is necessary to go ahead to the baggage car, and make special arrangements, and personally attended to the unloading. Well there we were, without blankets or a tent, and nothing to eat, stranded in a strange Indian Village, so it was necessary for us to find some shelter for the night. On applying to the telegraph operator, for information as to available quarters, we were referred to the resident Anglican Missionary run by a Doctor Otter so we walked down through the village to the home of the Doctor. The Doctor. and his family were not home when we arrived at the mission house, but we were informed by an old squaw that they had gone for a walk and would soon return. Meanwhile we had plenty of time to observe our surroundings. Kitwanga is a large Indian village, situated on the north bank of the Skeena River, in a Reserve four miles long by two miles wide and is bisected by the River. It is one of the largest Indian villages in the interior of B.C.. The population appears to be about three hundred Siwash Indians and about the same number of dogs. A large red bear stands in the centre of the village. There is also quite a collection of totem poles and a few modern gravestones. The missionaries returned at 5:00 pm and directed me to the residence of an Indian Storekeeper, James Ryan whose family the Doctor recommended for cleanliness. So we called on Mr. Ryan whom we found quite willing to board us in an empty upper room for sleeping accommodation for $2 apiece per day. As he was short of blankets we borrowed some from a neighbour, another Indian, by the name of Mr. Gus Sam Pierre. Someone was sick in the village last night and all through the night we could hear the rattle of the medicine man and his incantations as he strove to drive away the evil spirits. We never heard how the patient did, but I think the patient survived. Supper for five was served on the counter of the store after which we sat around the stove in the store. (There was no fire in the stove, but we sat around it just the same.) and played tunes on a mouth organ and tried to cheer up generally. Not succeeding very well in our attempt, we retired to our bedroom, which we reached through a trap door in the ceiling of the kitchen. Three of us slept on the floor and two in a bed and so we passed the time away until summoned to enter upon the responsibilities of another day by the call to breakfast.

Thursday November 6th The way-freight from Prince Rupert came along this morning about 10:00 o’clock, but there was no freight for us. We learned that we had passed the train at Pacific Station and that our freight would probably arrive Saturday morning. At 11:20 am, the passenger train returned from Smithers and we managed to secure our baggage. In the afternoon the boys ground their axes and I went across the river and located the north east corner of District Lot 837.

Friday November 7th We left our boarding house this morning after breakfast at 7:00 am, and crossed the river at 7:30 am, having to wait some time for the ferryman. To while away the time, while waiting for the arrival of our supplies, we started at the north east corner of Lot 837 and chained to the post 21 chains south. The line had apparently been run south and turned west at 20 chains and not tying in at the south east corner, the post had been set south a chain. I ran the west and south boundaries of Lot 3364. This is extremely rough and rocky country and as a farming proposition, I don’t think much of it. There is quite a nice stretch of unalienated land to the south and east. There are a couple of small lakes ¼ mile south of here. Our main work in this area lies 15 miles north up the Kitwancool River, in the neighbourhood of the Indian Village of Kitwancool. I hear that we may run into trouble in this area as the Indians object to any surveys in that vicinity. It is said that several surveyors attempted to make surveys there without success. One survey party apparently attempted to do the same work as I was to do and attempted to take a line right through the village, they say that the Indians took after him and he got out of there in a great hurry and so far as I know, he is still traveling. Anyway he never came back. A great many of the Indians of Kitwanga are related to the Kitwancools and somehow learned of our destination, consequently, when I tried to get packhorses, I found that the Indians refused to rent their horses at any price.

Saturday November 8th. Our freight arrived today OK. I finished Lot 3364. The bushes in the morning were laden with wet snow, which made surveying rather unpleasant. We crossed the river at 2:30 pm and sent a telegram to Hazelton for meat. Gus Sam Pierre thinks we may have trouble obtaining horses as the local Indians are in sympathy with the Kitwancool. Green Brothers. & Burden’s party from Prince George, (in charge was Boyd Affleck), came in on the afternoon train and are backpacking up the Kitwancool River about 30 miles to make a survey.

Sunday November 9th We spent the day quietly in Kitwanga. Our meat arrived on the train this afternoon. We tried all day to get packhorses, but were able to get only two, with the assistance of James Ryan, the storekeeper.

Monday November 10th I sent Cook and Harry Sutherland 4 miles up the trail to get a horse and rig from a homesteader and moved my outfit out to his place. Failing to get horses at Kitwanga, owing to the hostility of the Indians, I hired Gus Sam Pierre to go over to Andimaul to try and round up some packhorses for me. He managed to get one horse for me in Kitwanga, which I took with me. Green Brothers. & Burden’s party in the charge of Boyd Affleck left about 10:00 am, having secured three horses. Our boys arrived back with the horse and wagon, and we loaded the larger half of our outfit on board and, after settling with James Ryan, hit the trail and camped at the end of the wagon road near the house of the afore said homesteader. We left Kitwanga at 1:30 pm and arrived at 3:30 pm. We soon got a couple of tents up and the cook got to work and cooked up a rattling good supper.

Tuesday November 11th. We went down to the village this morning and brought up the rest of the outfit. Gus Sam Pierre told me that he had been able to secure only five horses in Andimaul and that they were being taken around from Andimaul by a trail, to where we were camped, in order to avoid the Village of Kitwanga. Brown’s horse proved to be the only one available in the village, Old Simondeek’s horse not having proper rigging. The pack train from Andimaul arrived about noon. In charge were a white man and an Indian. Gus Sam Pierre gave us a hand and we got away about 1:30 pm and made about 5 miles to the 8 mile post and camped on the trail for the night.. The stove proved to be a very awkward pack. Two miles out it was necessary to transfer it to another animal, (a mule,) however, the mule didn’t like it either and several times just lay down in the trail. We don’t seem to be traveling very fast, but we are making progress in spite of opposition of the Indians. We should make our camping ground about noon tomorrow and once established, it will take more than a show of hostility to make us quit. We left a portion of our outfit at Ellsworth’s pre-emption.

Wednesday November 12th We packed up and hit the trail again, at 8:30 am arriving in the neighbourhood of the Kitwancool Village about 11:30 am.. I met three men, with a couple of packhorses, about five miles from the village this morning. Although they thought we wouldn’t be allowed to work in the neighbourhood of the village, we continued on our way, unpacking near the bridge on the far side of the river from the village. I was considerably ahead of the pack train and about ½ mile south of the village when I was overtaken by four or five Indian braves, armed with rifles who immediately challenged me and wanted to know where we were going and demanded to know what our intentions were. I replied by asking where they themselves were going. When I told them that I was going to survey around the village, the spokesman, one Albert Williams, set to work and proceeded to deliver a long harangue on the rights of the Indians to a strip of land from the 10 mile post stretching 110 miles past their village. He said the Kitwancool’s claimed this land for their own and give me the history of his tribe going back some 250 years, telling of a charter from three kings, King George III, Edward VI and Queen Victoria, which said that the Indians were to own all the country. The spokesman, Albert Williams and I had quite an argument in the cause of which there was considerable fight talk and he threatened big trouble if we persisted. He intimated that it was the intention of the Indians to force us to return at once, and that they would allow us to proceed no farther. The pack train came along and he was getting excited. I had to shove him off the trail, and kick his dogs off too in order to let the horses pass. He told the Indian packer that he was going down to Kitwanga to bring up some more men. I intended to camp about half a mile south of the village, and started off early in advance of the pack train to locate a suitable campsite. I continued, until suddenly rounding a bend in the trail, I came out on an open hillside in plain view and across the river from the Village. Several Indians were busying themselves getting a supply of firewood, and seeing me up on the hillside, set up a shout and ran back to the Village, where there was immediately great excitement. Not wanting to camp so near the village anyhow, I retraced my footsteps to look at a sight that I had noticed about a quarter of a mile back and not being able to find a better place, I unpacked and set up camp on the south side of the river near the bridge. We set up the cook stove and the cook got busy. Soon after we made camp we had a visitor. Ebert Palmer, came over and said that the Chief wanted to see me, so I went over to the village taking Brown my chainman along with me. Meanwhile, Albert Williams went down to Kitwanga to get more men, he said, while Ebert Palmer, led the way to the council chamber. Kitwancool is quite a large and prosperous looking village at their junction of Long Creek and the Kitwancool River.. While not quite so large as Kitwanga, it has many larger houses and has an outstanding collection of Totem Poles which is said to be the finest collection of in B.C. Brown and I marched to the house of the Chief through the length of the village, in good order, preceded some 20 yards by our guide Ebert Palmer. The village stands on the west bank of the Kitwancool River, with a lot of fenced in graves, each with it’s special totem. In the river lie a number of wicker fish traps. The council chamber was a large, single room; about 30 feet by 50 feet and was also the residence of the Chief and immediate relatives as was evidenced by the numerous children, squaws, and dogs hanging about and also by various artifacts of domestic furniture. A wooden floor covered most of the ground except for a space about 10 feet square in the centre which was used as a fireplace and also occupied by the interpreter. The chief was sitting on a sort of raised platform which surrounded the square open space reserved for the fire. Around the outside of the room numerous bunks were located next to the walls. The large, square opening in the floor had a fire burning in the centre and the smoke escaped through an opening in the roof. Around the opening in the floor were set chairs and benches. The Chief was sitting in a rocking chair. Obviously he wasn’t very well and had a shawl over his shoulders. I went up and shook hands with him and took a chair beside him on the platform, while Ebert Palmer who was apparently master of ceremonies and acted as party whip, rounded up all the principle men and women. Apparently women took an important place in the councils. As each one came in, they took a seat facing the fire in solemn silence. They seated Brown facing me on the opposite side of the fire. Some of the leading suffragettes also came in, but did not sit on the benches, squatting on the ground. Some of them were wearing their fantastic headgear. Finally everyone had arrived and taken his place. The children and dogs were chased out and the meeting came to order. The Indians were very ceremonious in their speech making. Each man, as he rose to make his speech, took off his hat and waited for the chief’s approval before beginning to talk. The speakers were all Siwash, and at the close of each sentence, the speaker paused while Ebert Palmer, the interpreter gave me the English version. Albert Wilson started the ball rolling by stating the claim of the Kitwancool Indians to an area of land running from the 10 mile post on the trail from Kitwanga, and past the village to the Nass River, a distance of 110 miles, 115 miles in all and 68 miles wide. It was at this meeting that I first learned what was the real grievance of the Indians. It seems that some busybodies have been filling the natives with a lot of absurd notions. They have an idea that they have a perfect right to the strip of land afore mentioned, by virtue of the Treaty of Paris 1763 and are determined not to be confined to a reserve under any conditions. These are the Indians that presented the address to the Duke of Connaught last year and they showed me the Dukes reply, promising to do what he could for them as supporting their claim. Some shyster lawyer, a Mr. Clark of Vancouver, has been taking their money and encouraging them in their attitude and have apparently had their foolish childish minds filled with a lot of nonsense. He represents them and they say that they have a case pending in the Privy Council. He said that they had gotten up a petition to that effect, and sent it to King George five years ago. Albert Williams and Ambrose Derrick as well as four others, were sent to Vancouver to meet the Duke. Then one of the sub-chiefs got up and delivered an eloquent speech, which Ebert interpreted for me, to the effect that the Indians were determined to keep surveyors out of the country and emphasizing the point that all the land belonged to the Indians in the first place, and that we were merely interlopers. Anyway the Indians were highly wrought up over the idea that I was going to survey around the village. At the end of each speech, I would make a reply and they would hold a discussion among themselves, at the end of which the interpreter would turn to me. “Well we say you can’t survey here. You must move back right away, the other side of the 10 mile post.” No matter what was said, they always came back to their conclusion that the Indians owned all the land and would not have a reserve and they were going to make me go back, and absolutely refused to allow me to camp north of the 10 mile post. The Indians have a profound contempt for the Provincial Government, which they think is trying to take advantage of them, and in a less degree also for the Dominion Government. To them the King is the only authority that matters as they illustrated I graphically. They also quote from the Book of Deuteronomy, the 14th chapter, I think, something about the people shall possess the land. .He pointed to a mountain in the south west and said: “You see that mountain? Well that is our corner post, planted by my God, and this has been our land for time immemorial. We don’t want your stakes.” Then, in turn, the other sub-chiefs or councilors, each would make a speech, taking off his hat as he did so. Each finished in the same way, as Interpreted by Albert: “Well, we say that you cannot stay here. You must move back to the 10 mile post right away.” Of course I argued with him, and sometimes seemed to gain ground, but always got back to the decision that they were going to send us back. They absolutely refused to even listen to the proposal of a reserve when a party was sent in two years ago and they are just as determined not to accept a reserve at the present time. I showed them the map and other reserves, and also the amount of land surveyed at which they were considerably surprised, but the chief said they were determined not to allow more surveying. It was evidently a hopeless job but I continued to argue down their objections for over an hour, but it soon proved useless to talk. Finally they said that they were going to make me move back right away as far as the 10 mile post. They said that they didn’t want to make trouble, but if we put in posts, they would fight. Several of them had guns and bowie knives with them, and finally they all jumped up and rushed from the room, in a body, the interpreter saying “No more talk. We make you go back now”. No one was left besides the chief and I, but one women. She was a big, determined looking female, wearing an owlskin headdress and a grim expression. As I continued to talk to the chief who was very unhappy, this woman turned on me and gave me a terrific lecture, which as it was delivered in her native tongue, I was given to understand that I was to get the “heck” out of there, in a great hurry. Quite a crowd had gathered outside, evidently in a very hostile mood. The men were shouting and waving their guns, the children were crying, the dogs were barking and growling and as we walked down the trail the women hissed and spat at us and it seemed as if our popularity was way below zero. So we went back and had dinner, and I decided to move back as the Indians certainly meant to fight. There was no doubt as the their warlike intentions, so in view of their extreme hostility, I decided that discretion in this case was advisable, especially as I couldn’t keep the pack train with me as there was no feed for the horses. and as several of the Indians followed me back to where I was camped, and were evidently prepared to put their threats into execution, so we packed up camp and hit the backward trail arriving about 5:00 pm, and pitched camp at the place at the 3 mile post which we had vacated only this morning. Two of the Indians followed us as far as the 10 mile post. One of the packs came loose on the way, depositing the tub of dishes, a sack of potatoes and a box dropped off along the trail along the trail. The two packers also had a great deal of trouble with the horse packing the stove and finally had to leave it and come ahead, getting into camp some time after dark. I paid off the packers, sent them off, rode into town after dinner, and wired Harold Price in Vancouver, and soon after arriving at the telegraph office, received a wire back from Harold Price confirming that he would arrive on Wednesday November 19th with instructions. So we are simply camped here waiting. In talking over the trouble with the operator, I learned that the missionary C.M. Tate has also been encouraging the Indians in their attitude. Probably also the Indian missionary Pearse as well as that fat-head O’Meara of Victoria has had a finger in this pie.

Thursday November 13th We moved back to Ellsworth’s, pre-emption, pitched camp and so ends our expedition into the land of the Kitwancool, at least temporarily.. The cook and I started out some time before the packers, and a short distance south of our present camp, we met Albert Williams and a man by the name of Ambrose Derrick. It seem Albert was returning to Kitwancool with some “very” important papers, which to him appeared to clinch the land question for the Indians. One paper was a copy of an address presented to the Duke of Connaught, with a pair of moccasins for Princess Pat, in which they claimed the land had been granted to the Kitwancool by the Treaty of Paris, 1763. The other paper was a copy of the Duke’s reply to the address of the Indian’s, and neither document is worth the paper on which it is written. Seeing that we were returning from Kitwancool, they turned about and returned to Kitwanga. Several other Indians also returned with them. I went to Kitwanga after dinner on Brown’s horse, got the mail and sent a letter-gram to Harold Price. I received a letter from Harold Price, outlining two sections and two ½ sections saying that there was an discrepancy in the staking notices, and more complete details would be sent up next mail. Now according to Harold Price’s sketch, the Kitwancool village is included in one of the Lots, which according to the Land Act is illegal as the would be purchaser of land, states when staking, that the land is unoccupied. Coming out of the Village on my way back to camp, I met Albert Palmer. I told him that we would probably be going back to Kitwancool soon. He warned me that the Indians would not permit it and would make big trouble and drive me back again. I gathered from his language and expression, that there would be a whale of a fight.

Friday November 14th. It drizzled most of the day and is raining tonight. I met Albert Palmer and Ambrose Derrick coming up the trail with three loaded pack horses just as I started for town, and they passed the camp going back to the village this evening.

Wednesday November 19th Harold Price arrived in Kitwanga this afternoon. Brown, Harry Sutherland and I went down to meet him. As he was resolved to push on to Kitwancool as soon as possible, I rustled around and rounded up four horses, one of which I took up to the camp.

Thursday November 20th Cook and Harry Sutherland went to Kitwanga and brought up the other three horses while I went over to Andimaul, about 7 miles over the trail from the camp. On my arrival I inquired for Kingston and Henry Williams, and learned that they were at Kitwanga or Skeena crossing, six or seven miles farther so I set out for the crossing, walking along the track, to locate them. I met Kingston and his half-breed wife, near the bridge. They were on their way to Andimaul. Kingston seemed glad to get the work and he promised to take his horses over at once. I crossed the bridge and found Henry Williams. He said he could get 5 horses, including two mules, for me. I came back across the river with him, but as he neared the place where he kept his mules he seemed to be uncertain as to weather the man who owned the three horses would be willing to let them go to Kitwancool. So we went over and saw the man, and he and Henry Williams had a “pow wow” and the other man seemed to be willing to let his horses go. Henry Williams was rather vague as to where these horses were, but I gathered that they were somewhere near Andimaul. He put a packsaddle on one of the mules and drove the two ahead of him, along the trail to Andimaul. I kept with him until within a mile of Andimaul where I went ahead of him see how Kingston was making out. I found him just starting out to catch his two horses, and he promised to bring the two horses out to our camp in the afternoon, surely, so I made the 7 miles back to camp. There were three other pack horses in Andimaul which the owners seemed willing to rent, so that made ten altogether. The four from Kitwanga added up to 14. It seemed a lot of horses, but as an Indian is an extremely variable quantity, it was better to run the risk of having too many in sight rather than too few. I got back to camp at 4:00 pm. The pack horses from Andimaul failed to materialize, so we expect them along about noon tomorrow. Kingston may not have been able to catch his horses.

Friday November 21st I waited all morning for Kingston and Henry Williams, but as they failed to put in an appearance by 2:00 pm, we sent Brown and Harry Sutherland over to Andimaul to see what was the trouble. An Indian, Peter O’Litz, came up from Kitwanga today looking for a job. We tried to find out if he could work pack horses or axe on line with indifferent success. He didn’t seem to be able to talk English or Chinook very well, nor to understand either, so our conversation was somewhat one sided. About 3:00 pm, Peter O’Litz having sized up the situation carefully, disappeared and we thought we had seen the last of him. However, at 7:00 pm he came back from the village with his blankets. Apparently he had decided to work for us. Ellsworth says the fellow is half witted, having lost his reason over a squaw. Lots of white men have had this same experience. The boys returned from Andimaul with the startling news that Kingston had been chased off the Reserve and sent back to Kitsequala. Also Henry Williams had received a letter from the Kitwancools warning him not to send his horses up to Kitwancool. So now we have absolutely no horses available for our purpose in Andimaul. Harold Price and Cook left for Kitwanga about 6:00 pm to try and get Gus Sam Pierre to bring his horses up and move our equipment up to Kitwancool. He is presently working on the road for $3:75 per day and also may not want to antagonize his Kitwancool neighbours. Harold Price is prepared to offer him $5 per day.

Saturday November 22nd Harold Price. and Cook started out early this morning to pick out a camp site. Gus Sam Pierre arrived about 9:00 am, packed as much as he could on the four horses and left Ellsworth’s at 10:30 am. We were not able to get all our stuff on the four horses and left the stove and two horse loads at Ellsworth's. I borrowed a small stove from Ellsworth and reached the camp site, about 1 ½ miles south of the village by 3:00 pm. We met Boyd Affleck and his party returning this morning with their packs on their backs.

Sunday November 23rd Gus Sam Pierre returned to the village. Harry Sutherland and Brown went back with him to Ellsworth’s and brought back the two horse loads. This morning we had a visit from Ambrose Derrick accompanied by young Smith the chief’s son. Ambrose Derrick said that the Chief had been considering the matter and was now willing to accept a Reserve. Ambrose Derrick says that when the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway bought the land that was needed by that company for Right of Way through the Kitwanga. Mr. Soring, the Indian Agent kept the money. The Indians want this money. Ebert Palmer was away hunting and was not expected back until the afternoon, so a meeting was arranged for 7:00 pm. The boys arrived back from Ellsworth’s at 5:15 pm. Cook and I made tables and fixed up around camp. Pete O’Litz cut wood all day. About 7:15 pm Ambrose Derrick, Ebert Palmer and Fred Smith arrived. Ebert Palmer acted as spokesman. Harold Price, the cook and I were playing bridge when the delegation arrived and to show how little we thought of the situation, we continued with our game until we finished the hand. Then Harold Price faced around and Ebert Palmer proceeded to the business of the evening. Compared to the demands of the Indians last week, their proposition tonight was fairly modest. Instead of a strip of 130 miles, they were now willing to take a strip 14 miles long from the 13 mile post and go north 14 miles toward the Naas, to the head of Kitwancool Lake. If we would allow this, we could go ahead and survey, but first we must put in two posts, one at the 13 mile post, and one at the head of the lake. Unless we put in the two posts, Ebert Palmer declared, the Indians would make trouble and prevent us from surveying. Harold Price told them that he intended to go ahead with his original plans, and after he made his survey, he would recommend that a certain portion of it be set aside for the Indians. He insisted that the survey must be made first. Moreover, he warned that if the Indians caused any trouble, Ebert Palmer would be the first man to go to jail. Ebert Palmer said that he was willing to go to jail so long as he was sent to Ottawa, but he was not prepared to be sent to Hazelton. Finally they left for home, after warning us not to start work, to which Harold Price replied by repeating that he intended to start work next morning and that anyone interfering would be sent to jail.

Monday November 24th Pete O’Litz went down to Kitwanga with the two horses. At 7:00 am, I took my party with the instrument, chain, and axes and went out to commence our survey. We traveled the 1 ½ miles to the village and had to follow the trail passing right through the village at 7:30 am. The houses are lined up facing the river and the trail runs along the front of the houses. Most of the Indians were still asleep. Unfortunately the trail runs down the main avenue of the village, so it was impossible for us not to attract some attention. We made our way along the trail as quietly as possible. Two or three Indians appeared and Harold Price stopped to speak with Fred Smith, a brother of the Chief. Fred had worked for Harold Price about seven or eight years ago, both in canoe work and axing on line, and is one of the few Indians with whom it is at all possible to reason. Harold Price offered him $3.50 per day, to come and work for us. Evidently Fred was afraid that his reputation would suffer, and that his conduct would cause unfavorable criticism. After considerable wavering between what he felt was his duty, and his desire for wealth, he offered to come for $5 per day plus board, this was more than Harold Price was willing to pay. We had passed down the trail and had successfully passed the Chief’s house and had gone a hundred yards past, when some one came rushing out and kept shouting, “Where you go? You come back now!” He was apparently beside himself with rage, and I would not have been surprised to hear the crack of a rifle. I could feel little chills running up and down my back as we went on our way, as I thought of the possibility of someone taking a potshot at us, and I was the last man in the group. We found our starting point, the south east corner of District Lot 1208 and proceeded to run south therefrom. We found, to our pleasant surprise, that Colborne had run ½ mile before he was chased off by the Indians last season. This helped out a whole lot and we were getting along fine and had gone some 20 chains past the half mile, before Harold Price was hailed by an Indian and summoned to the council chamber in the village. (It was then 11:30 am) With a degree of bravado and hoping to impress the Indian he sent a message to the Chief saying that he was too busy to come at that time, but would come down after dinner. We crossed Long Creek and had lunch at 70 chains. After lunch Harold Price took his axe and went to the village while we continued to run line. We reached the corner, put in the bearing trees and had run 25 chains farther when one of the boys called out that a band of Indians were coming up the line. Soon after I heard Harold Price call out from behind the group telling me to do up the chain. I commenced to wind up the chain, but had done only 100 feet when the Indians reached the end of the chain at the foot of the hill and I felt some one grab the other end. They had no idea of how to break a steel tape so they wound it around stumps, so that we could not roll it up, which effectually prevented any further looping and made it impossible for them to break it. Soon they came swarming up to the top of the hill where we were and grabbed the axes away from the boys. They were boiling with fury and had run all the way. Fred Smith had kicked out all the hubs as he came along and thrown all the pickets away. He also grabbed the transit away from us, but I persuaded him to let me have it back. Ebert Palmer was highly pleased at the success of their raid and strutted about saying, “I am the big man now!” I was tempted to smash his ugly impudent face, but decided that under the circumstances it might precipitate a real fight and we were definitely out numbered. Harold Price had arrived at the village and had a conference in the council chamber, which lasted for two hours and ten minutes, but the Indians would not agree to any changes in their proposal. Finally one of them snatched Harold Price’s axe away from him, and when Harold Price took after the Indian and tried to get it back, they all crowded around him and things looked pretty ugly for a time. Harold Price had his hand on his automatic Luger, and would have pulled it, if Fred Smith hadn’t saved the situation by getting his axe back and returning it to him. While the scuffle was going on, Harold Price noticed Ebert Palmer, Arthur Wilson, and another Indian, slipping out of the door, and he realized that they meant to rush out to the line and make trouble, so he chased after them taking his axe with him, and a number of Indians raced after him. As he was climbing one of the hills on the line, he slipped and his hold on the axe relaxed and one of the Indians tore it out of his grasp. So they reached where we were peacefully engaged in producing our line, and allowed us to coil the chain, when they assumed that we would stop our work. So we set out for the village, three of the savages each carrying an axe. Brown retained his axe and the chain, although Fred Smith insisted on carrying the “billy can.” When we reached the village, Harold Price endeavored to get his axe back and pretty near started a real fight. Harry Sutherland and Cook were very nervous and finally succeeded in dragging Harold Price away from the pursuit of his axe. Meanwhile, I was having a little trouble of my own. I was standing to one side watching Harold Price trying to get his axe and ready to come to his assistance if required. Two or three Indians, including Fred Smith, seized hold of my transit, which I was carrying on my shoulder, and tried to take it from me. I instituted a vigorous resistance, looking peeved all the while, and made use of some extremely unkind and forceful expressions, and induced them to permit me to retain the machine. There must have been thirty excited Indians milling about. They had been summoned by Ebert Palmer, with several blasts from his bugle. Palmer was greatly elated at the success of their action, and strutted about again saying, “I am the big man now.” The chief delivered his ultimatum which sounded strangely above the babel of Siwash “Nothing doing white man, nothing doing.” The chief was very sick and came to the door of his house wrapped in a blanket. I couldn’t help but feel sorry for him. They refused to return our axes until we were ready to pack up and move out, so without our axes we retraced our steps to our camp, followed by the hoots and execrations of the women. Harold Price decided to go to the village of Kitwanga after supper and so left at 6:00 pm to wire the police at Prince Rupert.

Tuesday November 25th At 10:30 am I had a visit from six Indians, headed by Ebert Palmer and Arthur Wilson. Ebert Palmer wanted to know where the boss was, and I told him. Then he wanted to know what he was doing there, and I informed him that it was none of his business at which he seemed somewhat taken aback. I had a small stick in my mouth, on which I was chewing, as is my custom, during the interview and Wilson apparently thought that it showed a lack of respect for the delegation and insolently made a grab for it, but I pulled head back. I thought that he was trying to provoke a scrap, so I made a hostile demonstration, whereupon he retreated. They wanted to be assured that we wouldn’t attempt to proceed with our survey, and I assured them that we could not do so, as long as they retained our axes. This seemed reasonable to them and they departed in great humor. Ambrose Derrick and Fred Smith, who had gone down to Kitwanga last night, called in on their return, but I couldn’t make much out of them, except that they had gone down to get some more men and some papers, and I thought they said to get some pack horses, but I am not sure of that. Albert Williams and another man also called in on their way home from Kitwanga to Kitwancool about 2:30 pm. Albert Williams was quite sassy and reproached me bitterly for coming back again. When the group of Indians approaching our camp this morning were sighted, I assumed that they intended to make trouble. I had the steel shod legs out of the tripod handy as clubs, and hustled to the cook tent with a bunch of shotgun shells. The cook had both guns and my idea was that if a fight was started, and I was getting the worst of the battle, that the cook would come to my rescue with the artillery. The other boys refused to become involved. Pete O’Litz arrived back from Kitwanga this afternoon hungry as a bear. He said that he saw Harold Price in the village. He said he turned both horses and saddles over to his brother, an Indian by the name of Harry, so I suppose we will have to hunt up Ellsworth’s saddle for him when we go down.

Wednesday November 26th I spent a quiet and uneventful day in camp. It snowed part of the afternoon. Pete O’Litz has been appointed “flunky and bull cook” by “Dad” the cook. He cuts the wood, packs water, and eats the scraps.

Thursday November 27th We had a visit this morning from ½ dozen Indians headed by Ebert Palmer, Albert Williams, and Ambrose Derrick. They didn’t make any trouble, but brought back our axes and told us that they had a meeting yesterday and had decided that they would die fighting, if necessary, rather than give in. At 12:30 pm, the first detachment of police arrived, four in all. At 2:00 pm Gus Sam Pierre arrived with a message for the Sergeant. He left at 4:20 pm making the 13 ½ miles in 4 ½ hours. Gus Sam Pierre brought a message to the Kitwancools from the Chief of Police Owens of Prince Rupert. Chief Owens’ (whose son Walter later became the Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia) is in charge of this expedition, consisting in all of 12 men and a cook. The chief sent a message to the Kitwancool that he was coming up to see them, to uphold the majesty of the law, both for the Indian, and for the white man. The police party camped within a stone’s throw of our camp, and although their tent and outfit were late in arriving, they finally got settled for the night, some time after dark. About 7:30 pm a delegation from the village came down and Chief Owen lined them up and took their names and informed them that he would hold a council at the village in the morning. They then returned home, considerably impressed with the dignity of the law. Billy McMillan arrived with Harold Price this afternoon. He is to take charge while I go to Hazelton for the trial.

Friday November 28th Secure in the protection of the police, we started out this morning, crossed the river and marched down the full length of the village to our starting point, at the north west corner of Lot 1206. I ran 45 chains west to intersect with the east boundary of Lot 3366. I finished the east boundary of Lot 3366 and ran 31 chains of the south boundary. Soon after, our party was augmented by the addition of Pete O’Litz, who came running up full of energy and enthusiasm. He had a most enjoyable time on the line, although we could have made as much progress without him. He would often disappear completely and then I would spot him far ahead solemnly lining in. Down in the village, at intervals during the day, sounded the call of the bugle, and the dogs, for some reason, howled most of the day. The council was held this morning from 9:00 am to 11:00 am. Gus Sam Pierre acted as interpreter. Chief Owen is said to be some diplomat, and managed the situation with great tact and effectiveness. The Indians have agreed to refrain from interfering with our survey and to make no trouble, being assured that their interests will be looked after. Three of the head men, Arthur Wilson, Ebert Palmer, and Albert Williamson were each served with warrants to appear in court at Hazelton and have gone quietly to Kitwanga. During the council, Chief Owen noted, that a small Indian woman in the room was making quite a fuss and talking indignantly with her neighbours. Chief Owen had her brought before him and asked Gus Sam Pierre what her complaint was. “Well”, he said, “She says that you are taking away her man. She is not strong and needs someone to cut her wood and carry water for her. Her husband was Arthur Wilson and apparently she had him well housebroken. It was rather unusual for any Indian man to take any interest in housework, and she was quite annoyed about it, and insisted that it was only fair that the government should provide her with another man”. Then she announced that she had selected one of the constables as a suitable substitute, and pointed out Paddy Phillipson, a burly dominion constable and said that he would do.. Of course no-one took her seriously, (In fact no-one wanted to take her at all,) and this was considered a great joke by the party, and everyone laughed heartily, especially Phillipson. Eventually the council broke up and Phillipson was the first man out. Not taking the old lady seriously, he stepped out of the door with nothing on his mind but his dinner. Just as he stepped out of the door, to his utter horror and amazement, he felt himself grasped firmly by four muscular squaws, two on each arm. Another one took up her position in the rear. Struggling futilely against 600 lbs. of determined femininity, he found himself being propelled rapidly down the primrose path, while Mrs. Wilson led the way to her cabin. The posse, was at first so overcome with hilarious laughter, that it was not immediately realized that the lady was really serious. However, the piteous cries of the struggling arm of the law aroused his fellows to the gravity of the situation, and wiping the tears of mirth from their eyes, they rallied around and saved him from a fate, sometimes described by Victorian writers as being worse than death. They will probably be trying to take a man from our camp, so we will have to keep an eye on Brown.

Saturday November 29th This morning, the police pulled up stakes and departed, taking Paddy with them. I left with Harold Price at 11:00 am, arriving at Kitwanga at 3:00 pm. The constabulary were established in the ferryman’s house, and we had a lunch on our arrival. At 4:00 pm the train pulled in and we entrained for Hazelton. A great crowd of Indians were at the station to see the prisoners depart. Arriving at New Hazelton, we boarded the stagecoach and drove 5 miles to Old Hazelton, passing through the Indian Reserve and across the old suspension bridge across the Bulkley River. The buildings in New Hazelton are more modern, and it is located on the railway, but most of the people appear to live at Old Hazelton. We had supper at the Hazelton Hotel. At 8:30 pm, Magistrate Hoskins opened the court. The Indian agent, a Mr. Long, undertook the defense of the Indians, and Chief Owens conducted the prosecution. Harold Price gave his testimony first. This was taken down by the magistrate and interpreted to the Indians. Then I gave my evidence which was similarly interpreted. The Indians, through the Indian agent, all pleaded not guilty. Ebert Palmer, who is quite an orator, took the floor to conduct his own defense and launched into a long harangue. This wasn’t helping his cause any and the magistrate finally called a halt. Then he read them a lecture and gave them a severe reprimand. He sentenced them to a term in prison, but suspended their sentence. It was explained to them that our survey did not necessarily affect their title and it was impressed on them that everything would be done to safeguard their interests. Billy McMillan ran from 31 to 70 chains on the south boundary of Lot 3360

Sunday November 30th. We reached Kitwanga this morning at 11:20 am and left for camp at 11:45 am. Constable Brown came up with me and spent the night at my camp, and went back in the morning. He had to subpoena a witness at Kitwancool, in a horse stealing case. We reached camp at 2:50 pm. Billy McMillan finished the south boundary of Lot 3366 and ran 23 chains on the west boundary.

Monday December 1st It rained nearly all day, and the huge masses of snow falling from the heavily laden trees, made work very unpleasant. I finished the west boundary of Lot 3366 and ran 22 chains on the north boundary.

Tuesday December 2nd It rained hard most of the day so, we remained in camp.

Wednesday December 3rd The chinook continued blowing all night. This morning the creeks were flooded and practically all the snow is gone except that on the higher altitudes. I finished the north boundry of Lot 3366, but on tying in at the north east corner of .Lot 3366 we found that Billy McMillan had made an error in chainage of 2 ½ chains so we shall have to re-run this line. We had to wade the river on the way home as the bridge had been washed away. It was cloudy and rainy all day. Billy McMillan went to Kitwanga today on route to Hazelton thence to Vancouver.

Thursday December 4th It snowed hard all day. Almost decided to go in to camp and call it a day, but stuck it out and ran 30 chains of the south boundry of Lot 3365.

Friday December 5th The snow is about 6 inches deep on the trees and the boys had to work in a continual shower of snow. We only ran ½ mile of line today. I saw a ptarmigan this morning. Harold Price sent up a new man, Campbell, to help on line. He arrived this afternoon, and Peter O’Litz got back this afternoon with beans, sugar and mail. I found out from the cook tonight that we have only a weeks supply of provisions left, so I am sending to Hazelton for more.

Saturday December 6th Brown went down to Kitwanga this morning for supplies. Campbell came out with us this morning, chopped on line for half an hour, got some snow down his neck, swore vociferously, threw his axe down and quit. We finished the south boundary of Lot 3365 and ran 31 chains north on the west boundary.

Sunday December 7th I ran to 68½ chains on the west boundary, crossing the river at 47 chains. The snow on the north side of the river was two feet deep in places and nearly a foot deep under the trees, the other foot was on the branches. The country is heavily timbered, which with the accumulation of snow, makes working on the line, extremely disagreeable and laborious. The boys were pretty sore at having to go out on line this morning and one can hardly blame them, as working under these conditions is extremely wearing and trying. Tonight I went up to the south boundary of Lot 1208. I wanted to see if the line had been produced, but after striking the line and following it west a short distance, the snow became so deep, that I abandoned the attempt and followed the line East to the trail. The boys in attempting to cut over to the line, became confused, and finally cut across country, eventually reaching camp at 6:00 pm, pretty well tired out. It is raining tonight.

Monday December 8th It rained all day and all night so we remained in camp. Peter O’Litz cut down a big spruce; and he came equipped with a tremendous appetite, and this became quite a problem, however the cook had had experience with big eaters and knew how to deal with this situation. The cook has stalled Pete O’Litz at the dinner table three nights in a row. Soon to our amazement, we found Pete losing his appetite. The cook piled Pete with huge dishes of beans to which he had added a great deal of grease. This large addition of grease to the diet is guaranteed to slow down any big eater.

Tuesday December 9th Soon after commencing work this morning, it began to rain and snow and continued raining hard all day. I finished the line, striking the south boundary of Lot 1208 at 80 chains, but 3.32 chains to the east. I left the old post in the ground and set a new post at the intersection, then I chained east from the intersection, making the distance to the ¼ post exactly 40 chains and to the south east corner of Lot 1208, 80 chains, so it is evident that the original survey is in error. After lunch I went to the south east corner of Lot 1207 and ran 40 chains east to the north west corner of Lot 3369. I came back to the camp on a good trail along the east bank of the Kitwancool River. This trail, although not shown on the map, seems to be the main trail from the Skeena to the Nass.

Wednesday December 10th I started at the north west corner of Lot 3369 and ran 64 chains south. It was fine and bright today, but it will probably snow tomorrow. Harry Sutherland waited at the hub until I came up about 4:00 pm, and wanted to know if it wasn’t time to quit for the day. I disagreed with him whereupon he swore he would stay no longer and sticking his axe in a stump, he headed for camp. This was a rather characteristic act on his part. He is not of a very high order of mentality and has some queer notions. I am not sure but that it would be the part of wisdom to let him go, as he has worked himself into such a state, that it is doubtful that he will do good work in the future. I assumed that he intended to quit, and I was quite surprised when he insisted that he had no intention of so doing, and wished to go out again in the morning. I decided to allow him to do so, as I am very shorthanded, however, I made it clear that there was to be no repetition of such recalaitrant behaviour.

Thursday December 11th. I finished the west boundary of Lot 3369 and ran 13 chains of the south boundary. I ran 27 chains of the west boundary of Lot 3370, intersecting with the north boundary of Lot 1206. I chained the north boundary of Lot 1206, east from the south west corner of Lot 3370 and ran the north boundary of Lot 144A, 20 chains to south east boundary of Lot 3370 at intersection with the west boundary of Lot 1437. Harry Sutherland worked pretty well today, in fact it was the best day’s work he has produced so far. It failed to snow today and working conditions were good. Friday December 12th It snowed hard all morning, but cleared up by noon, and was fine for the rest of the day. I chained the west boundry of Lot 1206 in the morning and made it only 79 chains long. I ran 40 chains on the south boundry of Lot 3371 and 5 chains on the centre-line of Lot 3374. I ran the ½ mile in about two hours, but the remainder appears to be pretty heavy, however, there is not much snow on the trees and we may get along all right. Brown, who went down to Kitwanga on the 6th of December for supplies, hasn’t returned yet. Tonight is a bright moonlight tonight. Saturday December 13th. We put another bridge across the river. I followed the south boundary of Lot 1206 from the trail to the river and dropped a three foot cottonwood across the stream which makes a good bridge. I ran 50 chains on centre-line of Lot 3374. I ran into an area of heavy windfall or brule and left for camp at 3:30 pm. Harry Sutherland decided to take a shortcut and left about 5 minutes ahead of me. I heard Cook rambling about in the bush, so I called him over and we went to camp arriving about 4:30 pm, about three quarters of an hour before Harry Sutherland, who got in at 5:10 pm. About 8:00 pm, Brown and Bert Olson arrived. They had started from Kitwanga this morning with one horse and a toboggan. The toboggan broke down or wore out a few miles from Kitwanga and they had to get a sled from Ellsworth, with which they managed to get as far as the 8 mile post, leaving a sack of spuds and 100 pounds of flour at Ellsworth’s. About 6:00 pm they left the sled and horse and came on to camp. It snowed most of the afternoon.

Sunday December 14th. It snowed all day so we remained in camp. Bert Olson went back to bring up the flour and spuds. Ambrose Derrick went down and brought up the load left on the sleigh.

Monday December 15th I finished the centre-line of Lot 3374, tying into the north boundary of Lot 1456 at a chainage of 77.13 and 2.16 chains east of the old post. I set a new post at the intersection. It took us three hours to run the last 10 chains through dense hemlock thickets full of windfalls and loaded with snow. I went back to the north boundary of the line and after lunch ran 16 chains west. Bert Olson got back this afternoon with the supplies and left after supper.

Tuesday December 16th. I ran the centre-line of Lot 3371. It was cloudy and mild all day and raining quite hard tonight.

Wednesday December 17th The rain didn’t last very long last night and today dawned bright and clear. I finished the south boundary of Lot 3371 and ran 35 chains on the south boundary of Lot 3372. The snow is becoming deeper as we approach the mountains. It is about two feet deep where we quit tonight.

Thursday December 18th I finished the south boundary of Lot 3372. Sent Pete O’Litz down to the village for the mail. It’s cloudy today.

Friday December 19th I ran 37 chains on the west boundary of Lot 3373. I got down to the creek at 25 chains. There is about three feet of snow in the bottom, which made locomotion rather erratic and spasmodic. Brown and Harry Sutherland wanted to quit this morning, but agreed that such action would be rather raw.

Saturday December 20th I finished the west boundary of Lot 3373. The deep snow hampered our movements extremely and we ran only 15 chains before lunch, however we completed the remaining 28 chains in two hours. About 9 chains lay in the centre of an open muskeg about 2 chains wide. We found no sign of the north boundary of Lot 1457. It was probably never run.

Sunday December 21st We spent Sunday in camp. I took a few snapshots and patched one of my boots with moosehide.

Monday December 22nd I ran the west boundary of Lot 3372. The land here is covered with fairly heavy timber, but I was able to dodge most of the large trees. The weather continues to be bright and frosty. The river is beginning to freeze up.

Tuesday December 23rd I ran centre-line of Lot 3372. I came into a wilderness of large cedar and hemlock. A heavy windstorm had blown down about half of the trees and since they had no tap roots, their roots reached high in the air and made progress very difficult. Added to this was a dense undergrowth of cedar, hemlock, and devil’s club.

Wednesday December 24th I ran the west boundary of Lot 3371. Today is a fine, bright day. The Indian village appears to be deserted today, so the boys say. Probably the Indians are potlatching at Kitwanga.

Thursday December 25th I celebrated Christmas in camp by abstaining from labor. It was such a beautiful day, that it was a great pity to have to waste it, but the boys would have raised an awful howl if they had to work. I went over to the village, which I found to be absolutely deserted, and took some snaps of the totem poles and around the village. The cook put on a special Christmas dinner. For ice cream we mixed snow with custard, and a good time was had by all. Outside in the moonlight, the wolves were howling and the ice in the river was sending out loud cracks from time to time. Friday December 26th I ran a ½ mile south of the west boundary of Lot 3374. I had quite a time getting across the canyon. It was impracticable to either chain across or triangulate so I resorted to the use of the stadia. It snowed all day. I sent Pete O’Litz down to the village of Kitwanga this morning.

Saturday December 27th It snowed very hard most of the morning so I called it ‘Sunday’ and remained in camp.

Sunday December 28th I finished the west boundary of Lot 3374. I expected to cross the north boundary of Lot 1456, but didn’t cross the line. I was preparing to put in a post at the 80 chain, when I caught sight of a blazed tree, a chain or so to the east, and following this clue, I came to a post marked north west Lot 1456, north east Lot 1457. I put in a post at the intersection of the north boundary of Lot 1456 and my line at 77.50 chains. My line hit 1.23 chain west. There was absolutely no trace of the north boundary, of Lot 1456. Harry Sutherland was awake all night with a violent toothache, and set out this morning with his tooth for Prince Rupert. No sign yet of Pete O’Litz. He must be celebrating

Monday December 29th I ran 32 chain of the south boundary of Lot 3368. I put a post at the south east corner of Lot 3365.

Tuesday December 30th I finished the south boundary of Lot 3368. The going is something awful with the deep snow on the ground and on the trees, however, we had an early breakfast and spent only ½ hour for lunch, so we managed to get in a full day by sheer doggedness.

Wednesday December 31st Starting at the north west corner of Lot 3369, we ran 60 chains east. The windfalls or brules were something fierce, as thick as hair on a dog’s back, all grown up with cedar and hemlock bush, and all covered with two feet of snow.


Thursday January 1st I ran the north boundry of Lot 3370 to the intersection with the west boundary of Lot 1437 – 65 chains. I chained the east boundary of Lot 3370. Harry Sutherland arrived back from Prince Rupert.

Friday January 2nd. I started at north west corner of Lot 1437. The boundary of Lot 1437 has not been run so I had to run 15 chains east and then run north to 42 chains. Cook and Brown each had narrow escapes today. Each was struck by falling trees, but managed to escape without incurring much damage. It snowed most of the day.

Saturday January 3rd I finished the east boundary of Lot 3369 and finished the north boundary of Lot 3369 by producing a line to the intersection. A chinook is blowing today. I sprained my ankle on way to the camp tonight.

Sunday January 4th I started out to run the centre-line of Lot 3373, but after traveling a mile my ankle hurt so bad that I had to return to camp. Brown and Harry Sutherland chained the east boundary of Lot 3374.

Monday January 5th The boys chained and got some of the bearing trees on the old lines. I left for the Village of Kitwanga at 11 am, arriving at 4:30 pm. I put up at James Ryan’s.

Tuesday January 6th. Cook and Harry Sutherland arrived today. Ambrose Derrick went up today for the outfit and the cook.

Wednesday January 7th. John Graham and Ernie Matheson arrived today. Ambrose Derrick came down this afternoon with the outfit and we gave him the stove on account.

Thursday January 8th Brown and Cook wanted to go back to Vancouver and I gave them some money and their time checks. I took the train to Usk, arriving at 1:30 pm and camped across the track from the station.

Friday January 9th. I went out and retraced part of the west boundry of Lot 1427 and ran 25 chains of the south boundry of Lot 5879, going 10 chains past a witness post at 15 chains.

Saturday January 10th. John Graham went to Hazelton. I ran 37 chains on the north boundry of Lot 5879, and put in a witness post and Lot post on the way back.

Sunday January 11th I put in posts along the south boundry Lot 5879. I put in a witness post at 47.40.12.

Monday January 12th. I ran the traverse joining the witness posts. It rained all afternoon. I shipped our freight to Smithers.

Tuesday January 13th It rained most of the day. I called today ‘Sunday’ and remained in camp.

Wednesday January 14th I took the train for Smithers. I ran across Stanley Irwin, an old Kamloops and School of Practical Science schoolmate, again on the train.

Thursday January 15th John Graham boarded the train at Hazelton and went over to Aldermere and brought back Frank Watson. Meanwhile I located a camp site and the boys set up camp and the cook got busy. I went out and located a corner post.

Friday January 16th. I got permission from Divisional Headquarters at Prince Rupert to travel on the way freight and went as far as Doughty at mile 211. I expect this job will finish my term for the winter. I went out and located a corner post, while the boys finished putting up camp.

Saturday January 17th. I went out to the south east corner of Lot 359, intending to follow the line west to where we were to start work. I found that the south boundary was not run, so we cut across country, trying to pick up one of the cross lines, but without success and were finally obliged to call it quits for the day.

Sunday January 18th. I followed the north boundary of Lots 359 and 396 and cut south along the west boundary of Lot 896 to our starting point. I discovered that the east and south boundaries of Lot 896 had not been run, so it is no wonder that we were unable to pick up a line yesterday. I ran the north boundry of Lot 5861 and ½ of the west boundry.

Monday January 19th I ran the east boundary of Lot 5861 and part of the south boundary.

Tuesday January 20th I ran the centre-line of Lot 5861 and 12 chains of the south boundary of Lot 5861.

Wednesday January 21st. I finished the west boundary and the south boundary Lot 5861. I chased a martin up a tree this morning.

Thursday January 22nd I chained the south boundary Lot 5881 and ran 20 chains of the west boundary tying into the south east corner of Lot 5435.

Friday January 23rd I ran about 50 chains of centre-line of Lot 5881.

Saturday January 24th It snowed today so we adopted the Sabbath of the 7th. Day Adventists.

Sunday, January 25th I finished the centre-line of Lot 5861 and ran 10 chains west on the north boundary of Lot 5861. The snow is three to four feet deep up here.

Monday January 26th It is snowing hard this morning, so we remained in camp.

Tuesday January 27th I finished the north boundary of Lot, 5881 and completed the west boundary putting the ¼ post.

Wednesday January 28th I chained the west boundary of Lot 2517 and finished the north boundary of Lot 5881. It snowed very hard all day. I went to the station after supper to meet the train, but she failed to show up.

Thursday January 29th The train came along this morning at 10:00 am and telephoned to Smithers for an extra engine. We waited here, at Doughty, for ½ hour, while an extra engine was sent down from Smithers. When the extra engine arrived this afternoon the train went west. It snowed hard all day.

Friday January 30th The extra foot and a half of snow added to what we already have, renders any further survey too difficult as some of our work lies in high, rough country, so I have decided to pack up and return to Smithers tomorrow.

Saturday January 31st I struck camp and took our outfit to the station ready for the 4:00 pm freight. The freight was late so I put all the stuff on board the passenger, which came along at 11:00 pm. I expect to take the train for Prince Rupert in the morning.

Sunday February 1st The westbound train pulled into Smithers this morning and I left the Hotel to make connections. I was loaded down with two heavy suitcases as I headed for the station. About 100 yards from the station I heard the engineer give two toots on his whistle. Loaded down as I was, the spirit was willing, but my feet could not move fast enough, so the train pulled out while I was still some distance away. John Graham who had been in Smithers since Wednesday, wanted me to take the party across the river and make a start on Augustine’s purchase. I arranged for an early start Monday morning. Harry Sutherland had become so disagreeable and ornery that I refused to put up with him any longer. He objected strenuously to being fired, but I insisted and John Graham paid him off and let him go.

Monday February 2nd I left town this morning at 8:30 am and camped in Newetts cabin at the 40 mile post.

Tuesday February 3rd. It snowed hard all morning and afternoon. Over a foot of snow fell during the day. The snow was hip deep and I had to break trail ahead of the gang. I would bring one foot up to the level of the snow and then bring it down and bring up the other. In this way I broke trail and made it easier for the others following in my path. In this fashion we broke trail to the starting point and surveyed all day. In order to set out hubs or instrument points, it was necessary to dig a hole in the snow to the ground.

Wednesday February 4th John Graham said he would be over about noon today so I sent Ernie Matheson and Frank Watson out to chain some lines and I left about 9:00 am for Smithers, arriving at 2:00 pm.

Thursday February 5th I got some money from John Graham and boarded the train this morning for Prince Rupert.

Friday February 7th I arrived in Vancouver this evening at 6:00 pm on board the S.S. Prince George after a pleasant trip. On arriving in Vancouver I boarded with my brother Clinton and his wife Mary. I studied for final B.C.L.S. and wrote exam in April, but did not pass. I visited with the family and John Graham in Victoria West, where my Father was the incumbent minister. There seems to be quite a slump and I understand that Graham & Price have gone broke.

Thursday June 4th I arrived in Salmon Arm from Vancouver at noon. Uncle Ed, Ellis and Douglas were at the train. I had my stuff brought up and put $300.00 in the Bank of Hamilton. I spent the afternoon cleaning up the house which was in a most disreputable condition.

Friday June 5th I planted about 40 tomato plants, making about 60 altogether. Brosteau hauled some manure for me in the morning.

Saturday June 6th Brosteau cultivated about a third of an acre for me which I seeded to beets., borrowing a seeder from Mr. Tennant up the road. Aunt Gertie & Ronald arrived last night

Sunday June 7th I went to church this morning with Uncle Ed and family. After church they went up to Brett’s. Uncle Ed took the 6:00 pm train for Kamloops. I went to the Methodist church in the evening. Ellis and Douglas were out during the evening.

Monday June 8th I planted 8 hills of watermelons, 12 hills of muskmelons and 15 hills of cucumbers. Brosteau disced all day.

Tuesday June 9th It rained in showers most of the day. Brosteau brought up a sack of fertilizer for me and ran the disc in the afternoon. I put fertilizer on part of the beets and put in 1½ hours for company. It is raining hard tonight.

Wednesday June 10th It rained most of night and the morning. The rain barrels full. Brosteau ran the disc this afternoon. I planted some peas this afternoon and put in 2½ hours for the company. I made some cookies. Ellis went to a picnic this evening at Sandy Point.

Thursday June 11th It rained in showers this morning. I put in some corn. I did 3 hours. Leaving for camp. Brosteau worked all day.

Friday June 12th I did 4½ hours for the company. There was no sign of Brosteau.

Saturday June 13th The cucumbers and beets are coming up. Brosteau is working all day. I put in 5½ hours for company.

Sunday June 14th I went to church twice. In the evening Ellis paraded with the R.M.R. to the Presbyterian Church. Ellis tells me I have a reputation here as a woman hater.

Monday June 15th Brosteau worked all day, 2 hours the for company. The corn, peas and muskmelons are coming up.

Tuesday June 16th Brosteau worked all day. The watermelons is coming up. I took a panorama with 3a Kodak.

Wednesday June 17th Brosteau-worked for 3 hours in the morning. I went to ball game in the afternoon and to a picnic with Ellis and his friends.

Thursday June 18th - Friday June 19th I worked 2 hours for the company.

Sunday June 21st I went to church-morning and evening. Uncle Ed arrived today.

Monday June 22nd Douglas finished his exam this morning.

Saturday August 15th Ellis and Douglas in company with 33 others of the R.M.R. left on the 9:50 train for points east of Revelstoke. Ellis and three others are at Illicillewat. Douglas, I believe, is at Glacier. The war fever was too much for Leslie, and he signed on and left with the remainder of the R.M.R.s last night for Kamloops.

Tuesday September 15th Ellis is at Illicillewait 13th crossing, Douglas is at Cambie, Leslie is at Kicking Horse Pass, at Golden.

Sunday November 1st I wrote off the B.C.L.S. Exams in October and opened up in practice in Salmon Arm. Mr. Nulands offered me an office room for practically nothing until I got on my feet.

Tuesday November 3rd I ran the back line of G.W. Armstrong’s 80 acre farm at Silver Creek.

I believe the Mr. Latimer mentioned above, was
Frank Herbert Latimer, a Civil Engineer, who lived in Penticton, during this time.
Frank Herbert Latimer
b- 1861 in Kincardine, Bruce, ON, Canada
d- Feb 10, 1948, Penticton, BC, Canada

Mr. Ashcroft mentioned above, was Sir Albert Edward Ashcroft, Civil Engineer, Dominion and Provincial Land Surveyor, who was in charge of the Great White River Irrigation Ditch to supply water to the Goldstream Estate, as well as other important properties in the Vernon area. Mr. Ashcroft came direct from England and New York, Monday, Feb 1, 1908. White Valley Irrigation and Power Company in 1909. My guess, Ashcroft BC, named after this man.
Albert Edward Ashcroft
b- July 31, 1863 in Wales in 1901 census
b- Jan 1869 in England, immigrated in 1887, per 1911 census


  • Last modified: 2017/10/24 08:14
  • by dlgent